the ceramic materials based on compounds of titanium, primarily titanium dioxide (TiO2) and barium titanate (BaTiO3), that possess the properties of ferroelectrics. The TiO2 group is characterized by high dielectric constants (ε = 20–170) and low dielectric losses. This group is widely used in the manufacture of a type of capacitor known collectively in Russian as a tikond (from the Russian words for titanium and condenser). Tikondy have a negative temperature coefficient TC∊ of the dielectric constant, varying between –5 × 10–5 and –13 × 10–4 per °C.
In titanium ceramics containing, in addition to TiO2, oxides of magnesium, aluminum, and zirconium, TC∊ may also be positive (from –8 × 10–5 to 3 – 10–5). These ceramics have stable dielectric constants within a certain temperature range (20°–80°C); in Russian, they are known collectively as termokondy (from the Russian words for thermostable and condenser). Items are manufactured from the TiO2 ceramics by such methods as pressing and casting. Titanium ceramics are fired at 1250°–1350°C in a weakly oxidizing medium so as to avoid reduction of TiO2.
Titanium ceramics based on BaTiO3 are used in the manufacture of piezoelectric elements.
A. I. BULAVIN