Title-Deeds of 1861

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Title-Deeds of 1861


(ustavnye gramoty 1861), documents establishing the size of allotments to temporarily bonded peasants, in accordance with the Statutes of Feb. 19, 1861. The title-deeds also fixed the obligations for the use of the allotments and recorded information on the apportioning of land, the transfer of estates, and so on.

At the time of the Peasant Reform of 1861, each pomeshchik (landowner) drew up a title-deed, which was examined, approved, and implemented by a mirovoi posrednik (arbitrator of the peace); if the peasants rejected the title-deed, it could be approved even without their consent. The implementation of the title-deeds met with massive opposition from the peasantry. By Jan. 1, 1863, 95,000 title-deeds had been drafted, and 73,000 of them had entered into force; only 36,000, however, had been signed by the peasants. The task of drawing up title-deeds had basically been completed by 1864.

In accordance with the Statute of June 26, 1863, title-deeds were also drafted for appanage peasants.


Litvak, B. G. “K istorii formuliara ustavnoi gramoty 1861 g.” In Arkheograficheskii ezhegodnik za 1957g. Moscow, 1958.
Zaionchkovskii, P. A. Provedenie v zhizn’ krest’ianskoi reformy 1861 g. Moscow, 1958.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.