Tiumen


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Tiumen:

see TyumenTyumen
, city (1989 pop. 477,000), capital of Tyumen region, SW Siberian Russia, on the Tura River. On the Trans-Siberian RR, Tyumen is a major transfer point for river and rail freight. It has shipyards and machine plants.
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, Russia.

Tiumen’

 

a city and administrative center of Tiumen’ Oblast, RSFSR. Situated on both banks of the Tura River (a tributary of the Tobol). Major transportation junction, with railroad lines leading to Sverdlovsk, Omsk, and Surgut. River port and major freight transfer point from the river to the railroad and vice versa. Population, 335,000 (1976, 20 percent of the oblast’s population; 50,000 in 1926, 79,000 in 1939,150,000 in 1959, 269,000 in 1970). The city is divided into three raions.

The first Russian city in Siberia, Tiumen’ was founded in 1586 on the site of the Tatar city of Chinga-Tura, which had been captured by Ermak’s detachment in 1581. It became part of Siberia Province in 1709 and of the Tobol’sk namestnichestvo (vicegerency) in 1782; in 1796 it became the district center of Tobol’sk Province. In the 17th century, Tiumen’ was an important transit point on trade routes between Siberia and China. It grew economically owing to the development of steam navigation on Siberian rivers in the 1840’s and the construction in 1885 of the Ekaterinburg-Tiumen’ (now Sverdlovsk-Tiumen’) Railroad. In the second half of the 19th century, the shipbuilding, timber, fishing, and rug-weaving industries developed extensively in Tiumen’; grain, flour, and leather were shipped by way of the city.

A Social Democratic circle was founded in Tiumen’ early in 1905. On Jan. 5 (18), 1918, Soviet power was established in the city. On July 20,1918, Tiumen’ was seized by White Czechs and White Guards; it was liberated by the Red Army on Aug. 8, 1919. It has been the administrative center of Tiumen’ Oblast since 1944.

During the period of socialist construction, Tiumen’ became a major industrial and cultural center of Siberia. The largest branches of industry are machine building, metalworking, woodworking, and chemicals, as well as light industries and the food-processing industry. Major enterprises include shipbuilding, ship-repair, electrical machinery, construction machinery, instrument-making, forging-and-pressing, civil aviation, and machinery-repair plants, as well as the experimental Elektron plant. Other plants manufacture storage batteries, automobile and tractor electrical equipment, and medical equipment. There are also large wood-products enterprises producing lumber, plywood, and furniture; a chipboard plant is under construction (1976). The chemical industry is represented by plastics and pharmaceuticals plants. The production of construction materials, including bricks, keramzit, and reinforced concrete, is well developed. Light industry enterprises include a worsted combine (one of the largest in the USSR) and sheepskin, spinning and net-weaving, carpet, felt footwear, clothing, and footwear factories. The food-processing industry is highly developed, with meat-packing, milk, flour-milling, and fish-processing combines.

The Tiumen’ Thermal Electric Power Plant, which uses local peat, has been in operation since 1960. After the opening of the petroleum and gas fields of the Ob’-Irtysh North, Tiumen’ became a base of the petroleum and gas industry. The Samotlor-Surgut-Tobol’sk-Tiumen’-Kurgan-Ufa-Al’met’evsk (two lines) and Shaim-Tiumen’-Kurgan petroleum pipelines traverse the city.

Tiumen’ has five higher educational institutions: a university and industrial, civil engineering, agricultural, and medical institutes. There are seven specialized secondary educational institutions: machine building, forestry, Soviet trade, and cooperative trade technicums, medical and pedagogical schools, and an arts school. The city also has research and planning institutes for the petroleum and gas industry. Cultural institutions include an oblast drama theater, a puppet theater, a philharmonic society, a circus, a museum of local lore, and an art gallery.

REFERENCES

Tiumen’: Putevoditel’-spravochnik, 2nd ed. Sverdlovsk, 1974.
Kabo, R. M. Gowda Zapadnoi Sibiri: Ocherki istoriko-ekonomiche-skoi geografii (XVII-pervaia polovina XIX vv.). Moscow, 1949.
Shag v polveka: Rasskaz o proshlom, nastoiashchem i budushchem zemli Tiumenskoi. Sverdlovsk, 1967.
References in periodicals archive ?
The inhabitants of Tiumen' made a request to have their own district court as far back as 1897 and even pledged the impressive sum of up to 150,000 rubles for the construction of a courthouse after filing a petition with Murav 'ev.
However, the Grzegorz Wroblewskitrained Orphee Des Blins, a 54-1 outsider, was given a positive ride from the front by Jan Faltejsek and came home 16 lengths clear of Ronino, with Tiumen third.
After closing stores in Leningrad, Khar'kov, Krasnodar, Perm, and Tiumen, among others, seven divisions and approximately 20 commercial units remained.
A pattern of regional cleavage has emerged, with a flood of wealth attributed to Moscow City (not shown) and the lightly populated oil regions of Tiumen and Khanty-Mansy.
For most of the individual measures as well as for the index as a whole, the ranking places Nizhnii Novgorod first, followed fairly closely by Tiumen', then a gap, then Yaroslavl' and Saratov as the two poorly performing govern ments.
Vana and Tiumen were completing a hat-trick in the race to delight the 30,000-plus crowd at the track, but Vana admitted they had luck on their side.
It is quite revealing, that although the Antonov revolt has been studied in significant detail, many other peasant rebellions--including the massive Tiumen' uprising in western Siberia--have so far received only scant attention.
SOMETIMES the familiarity of a story serves only to make it yet more mind-expandingly extraordinary and yesterday Josef Vana, not so much sportsman as force of nature, landed his seventh Velka Pardubicka as a jockey and eighth as a trainer when narrowly getting Tiumen home for the second year in a row.
This brief excerpt from an interview with Antanas Kybartas, who was exiled from Lithuania in 1947 and spent ten years in a special settlement in Tiumen' oblast, reveals a number of issues important for understanding the experience of Soviet postwar victims of deportation.
Racing UK offers a free-to-air live broadcast of the race, whose runners include last year's one-two, stablemates Tiumen and dual winner Sixteen.
They would set out from cities across the empire and be funneled through Moscow before marching eastward through the town of Vladimir that gave its name to the notorious road that wound its way through Kazan, Perm', across the Urals to Tiumen', Tobol'sk and on toward Tomsk, Krasnoiarsk, and Irkutsk.
In 2009 Tiumen gave Czech racing legend Josef Vana his seventh Pardubicka victory as a trainer and sixth as a jockey.