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, city (1989 pop. 477,000), capital of Tyumen region, SW Siberian Russia, on the Tura River. On the Trans-Siberian RR, Tyumen is a major transfer point for river and rail freight. It has shipyards and machine plants.
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a city and administrative center of Tiumen’ Oblast, RSFSR. Situated on both banks of the Tura River (a tributary of the Tobol). Major transportation junction, with railroad lines leading to Sverdlovsk, Omsk, and Surgut. River port and major freight transfer point from the river to the railroad and vice versa. Population, 335,000 (1976, 20 percent of the oblast’s population; 50,000 in 1926, 79,000 in 1939,150,000 in 1959, 269,000 in 1970). The city is divided into three raions.
The first Russian city in Siberia, Tiumen’ was founded in 1586 on the site of the Tatar city of Chinga-Tura, which had been captured by Ermak’s detachment in 1581. It became part of Siberia Province in 1709 and of the Tobol’sk namestnichestvo (vicegerency) in 1782; in 1796 it became the district center of Tobol’sk Province. In the 17th century, Tiumen’ was an important transit point on trade routes between Siberia and China. It grew economically owing to the development of steam navigation on Siberian rivers in the 1840’s and the construction in 1885 of the Ekaterinburg-Tiumen’ (now Sverdlovsk-Tiumen’) Railroad. In the second half of the 19th century, the shipbuilding, timber, fishing, and rug-weaving industries developed extensively in Tiumen’; grain, flour, and leather were shipped by way of the city.
A Social Democratic circle was founded in Tiumen’ early in 1905. On Jan. 5 (18), 1918, Soviet power was established in the city. On July 20,1918, Tiumen’ was seized by White Czechs and White Guards; it was liberated by the Red Army on Aug. 8, 1919. It has been the administrative center of Tiumen’ Oblast since 1944.
During the period of socialist construction, Tiumen’ became a major industrial and cultural center of Siberia. The largest branches of industry are machine building, metalworking, woodworking, and chemicals, as well as light industries and the food-processing industry. Major enterprises include shipbuilding, ship-repair, electrical machinery, construction machinery, instrument-making, forging-and-pressing, civil aviation, and machinery-repair plants, as well as the experimental Elektron plant. Other plants manufacture storage batteries, automobile and tractor electrical equipment, and medical equipment. There are also large wood-products enterprises producing lumber, plywood, and furniture; a chipboard plant is under construction (1976). The chemical industry is represented by plastics and pharmaceuticals plants. The production of construction materials, including bricks, keramzit, and reinforced concrete, is well developed. Light industry enterprises include a worsted combine (one of the largest in the USSR) and sheepskin, spinning and net-weaving, carpet, felt footwear, clothing, and footwear factories. The food-processing industry is highly developed, with meat-packing, milk, flour-milling, and fish-processing combines.
The Tiumen’ Thermal Electric Power Plant, which uses local peat, has been in operation since 1960. After the opening of the petroleum and gas fields of the Ob’-Irtysh North, Tiumen’ became a base of the petroleum and gas industry. The Samotlor-Surgut-Tobol’sk-Tiumen’-Kurgan-Ufa-Al’met’evsk (two lines) and Shaim-Tiumen’-Kurgan petroleum pipelines traverse the city.
Tiumen’ has five higher educational institutions: a university and industrial, civil engineering, agricultural, and medical institutes. There are seven specialized secondary educational institutions: machine building, forestry, Soviet trade, and cooperative trade technicums, medical and pedagogical schools, and an arts school. The city also has research and planning institutes for the petroleum and gas industry. Cultural institutions include an oblast drama theater, a puppet theater, a philharmonic society, a circus, a museum of local lore, and an art gallery.
REFERENCESTiumen’: Putevoditel’-spravochnik, 2nd ed. Sverdlovsk, 1974.
Kabo, R. M. Gowda Zapadnoi Sibiri: Ocherki istoriko-ekonomiche-skoi geografii (XVII-pervaia polovina XIX vv.). Moscow, 1949.
Shag v polveka: Rasskaz o proshlom, nastoiashchem i budushchem zemli Tiumenskoi. Sverdlovsk, 1967.