Yiddish language

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Yiddish language

(yĭd`ĭsh), a member of the West Germanic group of the Germanic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Germanic languagesGermanic languages,
subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages, spoken by about 470 million people in many parts of the world, but chiefly in Europe and the Western Hemisphere.
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; German languageGerman language,
member of the West Germanic group of the Germanic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Germanic languages). It is the official language of Germany and Austria and is one of the official languages of Switzerland.
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).

Although it is not a national language, Yiddish is spoken as a first language by approximately 5 million Jews all over the world, especially in Argentina, Canada, France, Israel, Mexico, Romania, the United States, and the republics of the former USSR. Before the annihilation of 6 million Jews by the Nazis, it was the tongue of more than 11 million people. Growing out of a blend of a number of medieval German dialects, Yiddish arose c.1100 in the ghettos of Central Europe. From there it was taken to Eastern Europe by Jews who began to leave German-speaking areas in the 14th cent. as a result of persecution. By the 18th cent. Yiddish was almost universal among the Jews of Eastern Europe. It has generally accompanied Eastern European Jews in their migrations to other parts of the world.

Phonetically, Yiddish is closer to Middle High German than is modern German. Although the vocabulary of Yiddish is basically Germanic, it has been enlarged by borrowings from Hebrew, Aramaic, some Slavic and Romance languages, and English. Written from right to left like Hebrew, Yiddish also uses the Hebrew alphabet with certain modifications. In 1925 the Yiddish Scientific Institute (YIVO) was established in Vilnius, Lithuania. It served as an academy to oversee the development of the language. Later its headquarters were transferred to New York City, where in time it became the Yivo Institute for Jewish Research. Coping with the problem of dialects, this institute has done much to bring about the standardization of Yiddish.

In the eyes of many, Yiddish has significance both as the language of an important literature as well as a unique expression of the Jewish people. It is widely thought that modern Yiddish literature began in 1864 with the publication of Das Kleyne Mentshele (The Little Man) by Mendele mocher sforimMendele mocher sforim
[Yid.,= Mendele the book peddler] , pseud. of Sholem Yakov Abramovich
, 1836–1917, Yiddish novelist. Born in Minsk, and orphaned at 14, he traveled with beggars through Ukraine.
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. Among the best-known writers in Yiddish literature are Sholem AleichemAleichem, Sholem
[Heb.,=Peace be upon you!], pseud. of Sholem Rabinowitz
, 1859–1916, Yiddish author, b. Russia. One of the great Yiddish writers, he is best known for his humorous tales of life among the poverty-ridden and oppressed Russian Jews of the late 19th
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, I. L. PeretzPeretz or Perez, Isaac Loeb
, 1852–1915, Jewish poet, novelist, playwright, and lawyer, b. Zamosc, Poland.
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, Isaac Meier Dik, and Isaac Bashevis SingerSinger, Isaac Bashevis
, 1904–91, American novelist and short-story writer in the Yiddish language, younger brother of I. J. Singer, b. Leoncin, Poland (then in Russia).
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, the first writer in the language to be awarded (1978) the Nobel Prize in Literature. Thousands of Yiddish works are housed at the Yiddish Book Center at Hampshire College, Amherst, Mass.

Bibliography

See M. I. Herzog et al., ed., The Field of Yiddish: Studies in Language, Folklore, and Literature (1969); M. Weinreich, History of the Yiddish Language (1980); D. Katz, Grammar of the Yiddish Language (1987); D. G. Roskies, A Bridge of Longing: The Lost Art of Yiddish Storytelling (1995).

References in periodicals archive ?
Von Wirzeburc ich Cuonrat von welsche in tiutsch getihte mit rimen gerne rihte daz alte buoch von Troye.
55) nu stuont ein bette da bi in: daz was berihtet also wol als ein bette beste sol, (Hartmann von Aue, Iwein, 1212,1214) [Tenian alli cerca una cama, que se hallaba tan bien preparada, como la mejor cama debe estar,] y <<traducir>>: (20) 56) der hiez mich durch den willen sin ditz mwre in tiutsch berihten, (Rudolf von Ems, Der gute Gerhard, 6836-6837) [El me mando contar esta historia en aleman,] 57) der hetiz in walischen getihtit.
68) der hab ich mich genomen an in deutschew wart zu tichten (Seifrit, Alexander, 12-13) [y yo me propuse recomponerlo (traducirlo) en lengua alemana] 69) von Wirzeburc ich Cuonrat von welsche in tiutsch getihte mit rimen gerne rihte daz alte buoch von Troye.
84) daz in latine stat geschriben, werde in tiusch von mir getriben (Konrad von Wurzburg, Der heilige Alexius, 19-20) [la cual se halla escrita en latin, y es traducida por mi al aleman] 85) diu wunder diu ich han beschriben und mit rime in tiutsch getriben, (Konrad von Wurzburg, Sant Nicolaus, 529-530) [los sucesos que yo he descrito y con rima al aleman he traducido,] 4.18.
The present volume covers Arthurian literature in both German and Dutch on the justifiable ground that, as linguistic terms, tiutsch and dietsch were still closer together in the Middle Ages than today and that 'German' in the title could therefore be used with this common meaning.