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mental activity associated with the rapid-eye-movement (REM) period of sleep. It is commonly made up of a number of visual images, scenes or thoughts expressed in terms of seeing rather than in those of the other senses or in words. Electroencephalograph studies, measuring the electrical activity of the brain during REM sleep, have shown that young adults dream for 1 1-2 to 2 hours of every 8-hour period of sleep. Infants spend an average of 50% of their sleep in the REM phase (they are believed to dream more often than adults) a figure which decreases steadily with age. During dreams, blood pressure and heart rate increase, and breathing is quickened, but the body is otherwise immobile. Studies have shown that sleepers deprived of dream-sleep are likely to become irritable and lose coordination skills. Unusually frightening dreams are called nightmares, and daydreams are constructed fantasies that occur while the individual is awake. Studies have demonstrated the existence of lucid dreaming, where the individual is aware that he is dreaming and has a degree of control over his dream.

Sigmund FreudFreud, Sigmund
, 1856–1939, Austrian psychiatrist, founder of psychoanalysis. Born in Moravia, he lived most of his life in Vienna, receiving his medical degree from the Univ. of Vienna in 1881.

His medical career began with an apprenticeship (1885–86) under J.
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, in his pioneering work The Interpretation of Dreams (1900, tr. 1913), was one of the first to emphasize dreams as keys to the unconscious. He distinguished the manifest content of dreams—the dream as it is recalled by the individual—from the latent content or the meaning of the dream, which Freud saw in terms of wish fulfillment. C. G. JungJung, Carl Gustav
, 1875–1961, Swiss psychiatrist, founder of analytical psychology. The son of a country pastor, he studied at Basel (1895–1900) and Zürich (M.D., 1902).
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 held that dreams function to reveal the unconscious mind, anticipate future events, and give expression to neglected areas of the dreamer's personality. Another theory, which PET scan studies appear to support, suggests that dreams are a result of electrical energy that stimulates memories located in various regions of the brain.


See J. A. Hobson, The Dreaming Brain (1988); M.-L. von Franz, Dreams (1991).


An involuntary series of visual, auditory, or kinesthetic images, emotions, and thoughts occurring in the mind during sleep or a sleeplike state, which take the form of a sequence of events or of a story, having a feeling of reality but totally lacking a feeling of free will.


a. mental activity, usually in the form of an imagined series of events, occurring during certain phases of sleep
b. (as modifier): a dream sequence
a. a sequence of imaginative thoughts indulged in while awake; daydream; fantasy
b. (as modifier): a dream world
References in periodicals archive ?
With few exceptions, the tjukurpa within the park is part of much longer journeys by the ancestral beings, and the park is an important center of many ancestral tracks that converge there.
For instance, on entering the Tjukurpa space beyond the entrance, you are simultaneously in a snake's guts, wandering through the winding topography of the dunes and in a gallery which shows some of the finest Anangu paintings, while being instructed in words about some of the significance of the place and its people.
These stories and events demonstrate how Anangu negotiate both Anangu and 'whitefella' ways in everyday life through the development of contemporary cultural practices, such as writing cultural information down in books, and, in a more philosophical sense, about how Anangu being and tjukurpa is impacted by non-Indigenous influences.
Tjukurpa has been translated as the Dreaming but it is more than that.
Before beginning the presentation, we need to make an important point about the lexical polysemy of words like Warlpiri jukurrpa, Pitjantjatjara/Yankunytjatjara tjukurpa, Arrernte altyerre etc.
TJUKURPA, an exhibition of monoprints by well-known Coventry artist Nancy Upshall, is on display at the library exhibition room at the University of Warwick until June 4 (Mon-Fri, 9am-9pm, Sat, noon-8pm, Sun 1pm-9pm.