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Tobol(təbôl`), river, c.1,050 mi (1,690 km) long, rising in the Mugodzhar Hills, NE Kazakhstan. It flows NE past Qostanay, into Russia, and past Kurgan to join the Irtysh River at Tobolsk. It is navigable in its lower course.
an urban-type settlement in Taranovskoe Raion, Kustanai Oblast, Kazakh SSR. Railroad junction with lines to Kusta-nai, Kartaly, Dzhetygara, and Tselinograd. Population, 11,300 (1975). Enterprises servicing the railroad industry are located in Tobol, as well as a building-materials combine and a brewery.
a river in Kustanai Oblast, Kazakh SSR, and Kurgan and Tiumen’ oblasts, RSFSR. A left tributary of the Irtysh River, in the Ob’ basin. The Tobol measures 1,591 km in length, and its basin covers an area of 426,000 sq km, including 62,000 sq km of drainless land.
In the upper course the Tobol flows over the Turgai Plateau, and in the middle and lower courses it meanders across the Western Siberian Lowland, through a wide valley. The river is fed primarily by snow, although downstream it is fed increasingly by rain. High water begins in the first half of April and lasts until mid-June in the upper course and until early August in the lower course. The mean flow rate is 26.2 cu m per sec in the upper course, 898 km from the mouth, and 805 cu m per sec at the mouth; the maximum flow rates in the upper course and at the mouth are 348 cu m per sec and 6,350 cu m per sec, respectively. The average amount of suspended matter is 260 g per cu m; the annual flow of suspended matter is 1.6 million tons.
The Tobol freezes in the lower course in late October or early November, and in the upper course in November. The ice breaks up in the second half of April or the first half of May. The largest tributaries are the Ui, Iset’, Tura, and Tavda, on the left, and the Ubagan, on the right. The river is used to float timber. It is navigable for 437 km from the mouth. The flow is regulated by reservoirs used to supply water to industrial centers. The cities of Lisakovsk, Rudnyi, Kustanai, Kurgan, and Ialutorovsk are situated on the Tobol.