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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(also Toktamysh). Date of birth unknown; died 1406. Khan of the Golden Horde; descendant of Jochi Khan.

In the 1370’s, with the help of Tamerlane (Timur), Toktamish conquered parts of southern Kazakhstan and the Syr Darya River basin. In 1380, taking advantage of Mamai’s defeat at Kulikovo, Toktamish seized control of the Golden Horde. Suppressing internal discord, he succeeded in restoring the unity of the horde within the first seven years of his reign. In a campaign that laid waste the lands of the Moscow Principality, Toktamish in 1382 captured Moscow by trickery, looting and burning the city. From 1389 to 1395 he fought against Tamerlane for control over the lands of Transcaucasia and Middle Asia; the struggle ended with the defeat of Toktamish and his loss of all territories east of the Volga. New defeats were inflicted on him in 1398–99 by Timur-Kutlugh, khan of the Trans-Volga Horde. Toktamish met his death at the hands of the Siberian khan Shadibeg.


Nasonov, A. N. Mongoly i Rus’. Moscow-Leningrad, 1940.
Grekov, B. D., and A. Iu. Iakubovskii. Zolotaia Orda i ee padenie. Moscow-Leningrad, 1950.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Among these sacred places is Mount Aulietau, where the ancient tombs of the prophet Zarathustra, Zhoshy Khan, Alash Khan, Tokhtamysh Khan, Biya Edige and other prominent ancestors of the people are located.
Mamai regrouped, but his second army deserted to Khan Tokhtamysh, then client of the Central Asian warlord Timur (Tamerlane).
(5) The Kulikovo cycle deliberately misrepresented Russian military assistance to Tokhtamysh in a battle on the Dnieper River against Mamai as a Muscovite victory over Mamai on the Don River in which Tokhtamysh played no role.
They conclude that the Zadonshchina dates to the brief interval between the battle of Kulikovo and the sack of Moscow by Tokhtamysh, the "Chronicle Tale" (in its primary Long Redaction, to which I will return) to no later than the first third of the 15th century, and the "Narration" to the end of the 15th or the beginning of the 16th century.
Although Tokhtamysh soon restored Horde authority, he was nevertheless forced to recognize Muscovite supremacy in northeastern Russia.
Because of the sack of Moscow by Tokhtamysh in 1382, the Tatar Yoke survived Kulikovo.
He soon became a hero of Kulikovo (Dmitrii Donskoi's mythologized 1380 victory over the Tatar emir Mamai, followed in 1382 by the oft-neglected devastating, punitive sack of Moscow by Khan Tokhtamysh).
He argues that Kulikovo was important not because of the Russian victory, which Khan Tokhtamysh reversed in 1382, but because the ongoing struggle between Mamai and Tokhtamysh weakened the Horde.
Tokhtamysh beat Mamai, but he could not withstand his former patron Timur (Tamerlane), the great military force of the age whom Tokhtamysh foolishly challenged.
Marozzi details Timur's conflict with Tokhtamysh on 157-200.
The first known reference to firearms in Muscovy dates from 1382, when Moscow's defenders fired small cannon (tiufiak) at Tokhtamysh's forces.