The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(also Toktamysh). Date of birth unknown; died 1406. Khan of the Golden Horde; descendant of Jochi Khan.

In the 1370’s, with the help of Tamerlane (Timur), Toktamish conquered parts of southern Kazakhstan and the Syr Darya River basin. In 1380, taking advantage of Mamai’s defeat at Kulikovo, Toktamish seized control of the Golden Horde. Suppressing internal discord, he succeeded in restoring the unity of the horde within the first seven years of his reign. In a campaign that laid waste the lands of the Moscow Principality, Toktamish in 1382 captured Moscow by trickery, looting and burning the city. From 1389 to 1395 he fought against Tamerlane for control over the lands of Transcaucasia and Middle Asia; the struggle ended with the defeat of Toktamish and his loss of all territories east of the Volga. New defeats were inflicted on him in 1398–99 by Timur-Kutlugh, khan of the Trans-Volga Horde. Toktamish met his death at the hands of the Siberian khan Shadibeg.


Nasonov, A. N. Mongoly i Rus’. Moscow-Leningrad, 1940.
Grekov, B. D., and A. Iu. Iakubovskii. Zolotaia Orda i ee padenie. Moscow-Leningrad, 1950.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Principal wars: conquest of Transoxiana (eastern Uzbek S.S.R.) (1364-1370); war with Khwarizm (Khiva) (1370-1380); conquest of Persia (1381-1387); wars with Toktamish (1385-1386 and 1388-1395); invasion of Russia (1390-1391); conquest of Mesopotamia and Georgia (1393-1395); invasion of India (1398-1399); invasions of Syria (1400) and Anatolia (1402).