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Born Oct. 25,1864, in the kishlak (hamlet) of Kushchusu, in what is now Toktogul Raion, Osh Oblast, Kirghiz SSR; died Feb. 17, 1933, in the village of Sasyk-Dzhiide, Toktogul Raion. Soviet Kirghiz People’s Akyn. Expert in oral poetry, composer, and virtuoso musician; a performer on the komuz. One of the founders of Soviet Kirghiz literature.
Toktogul began composing songs at the age of 12. A master of the aitysh (a traditional form of folk poetry), he also performed folk epic works. Popular lyric works composed during his early period included Alymkan and To Girls. Toktogul wrote many satiric works; for writing the satiric Five Boars, The Moneylender Chakyrbai, and Eshen-Kalpa he was exiled to Siberia. He escaped from exile in 1910 and returned to his homeland; these events were reflected in the songs “Farewell, My People!”, “In Exile, ” and “Greetings, Beloved People!”
After the October Revolution of 1917, Toktogul’s songs summoned the people to build a new life. He was the first in Kirghiz literature to depict V. I. Lenin, in What Kind of Woman Gave Birth to a Son Like Lenin? Toktogul influenced many Kirghiz poets and composers. He wrote numerous kiuis—classics of folk instrumental music such as Toguz-kairyk, Min Kyial, Myrza kerbez, and Chon kerbez.
Toktogul’s melodies have been recorded, and are used by Soviet composers. In 1965 the Toktogul Republic State Prize was established. Toktogul’s poetic works have been translated into many national languages of the USSR.
WORKSChïgarmalïrïn jïynagï, vols. 1–2. Frunze, 1968.
In Russian translation:
Izbrannoe. Frunze, 1964.
REFERENCESVinogradov, V. S. Muzykal’noe nasledie Toktogula. Moscow, 1961.
Malenov, B. Velikii akyn-demokrat. Frunze, 1964.
Abdraev, M., and B. Alagushov. Toktogul-kompozitor. Frunze, 1964.
Istoriia kirgizskoi sovetskoi literatury. Moscow, 1970.
Tashtemirov, J. Toktogul jana kïrgïz adabiyatï. Frunze, 1964.