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(“On Ancient Poetry”), an ancient Tamil treatise on grammar and poetics. Its earliest versions date from the first century B.C., and its final version, from the fourth and fifth centuries A.D.

The Tolkappiyam is the earliest extant Tamil treatise. It contains 1,276 sutras (precepts) and consists of three parts: the “Book on Letters, ” the “Book on Words, ” and the “Book on [Poetic] Content.” The Tolkappiyam borrowed extensively from Sanskrit sources, but it also contained original ideas. The third book drew on the Tamil system of poetic canons. This system was based on a five-way classification of poetic themes and on the division of poetry into akam (“the inner”), that is, love poetry, and puram (“the outer”), that is, poetry about all other subjects, but mainly war.


Subrahmanya, Sastri. Tolkappiyam Collatikaram, With English Commentary. Annamalainagar, 1945.
Varadaraja, Iyer. Tolkappiyam Poruladikaram, vol. 1, part 2. Annamalainagar, 1948.
Somasundaram Pillai, J. M. History of Tamil Literature. Annamalai nagar, 1968.


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The transitions this makes possible are evident in stories attached to Varuna, the Hindu God of the Ocean, who was initially tied to the coasts, holding sway, says the ancient Tamil text, the Tolkappiyam, over the littoral tracts.
Tolkappiyar, in his work Tolkappiyam (1000-600 BC) first mentions the concept of tinai.
The early Tamil grammar, the Tolkappiyam, describes the order as kurinci (usually a clandestine meeting of the lovers at night in the mountains), neytal (usually the lovers' separation and suggestion of abandonment, indexed by the seashore), palai (usually the hero traveling across a wilderness to elope with or marry the heroine), mullai (usually married heroine waiting for her husband's return from a journey in the evening), and marutam (usually jealous quarrelling between husband and wife related to his perceived infidelities).
For the reader of ancient Tamil texts, they may represent "Korravai", the name (or epithet) given to a goddess described in the Tamil epics, the Manimekakii and the Silappatikaram (5th-7th centuries) as well as named in the Tolkappiyam.
Pero la exegesis gramatical/poetica de este tropo, desde Tolkappiyam a Nannul y hasta la actualidad, afirma que esta metafora es de hecho una forma de "simil reducido" -ullurai uvamam, literalmente el simil que "reside", urai, "en el interior", ul-, o "el simil eliptico" -uvamat tokai; Nannul 366- (para continuar los debates sobre el simil en Tolkappiyam, ver Sharma, 1971: 55-57 y Sundaramoorthy, 1974: 93-113).
The Tolkappiyam, a book of grammar and rhetoric, was compiled along with eight anthologies (Ettuttokai) of secular poetry: Kuruntokai, Narrinai, Akananuru, Ainkurunuru, Kalittakai, Purananuru, Patirruppattu, and Paripatal.
eriyavaccun Pi]lai's reliance on the Sanskrit Ramayalja to explicate the verse, "rather than more suitable" Tamil texts such as the Tolkappiyam or the Cilappatikaram, has more to do with his "theological project" than with anything else; a choice driven, in other words, by sectarian affiliation.
92), and, in passing, works out text chronologies via the tantrayukti lists in the Tolkappiyam and other later grammars and manuals on poetics.
Companion Volume to the Cenavaraiyam on Tamil Morphology and Syntax: Le commentaire de Cenavaraiyar sur le Collatikarum du Tolkappiyam, vol.
Detailed comparisons between the phonological and grammatical features of the inscriptions and those of Tamil literature, especially the prescriptions provided in the Tolkappiyam (pp.
145, he writes that the Tolkappiyam cannot be earlier than the ninth century because the inscriptions refer to a Sanskrit grammar by Agastya and thus "it would seem that grammars of Tamil did not exist.
Scharfe explained to a businessman in Madras that he was trying to determine the date of the Tolkappiyam by comparing it with the text of the Sanskrit grammatical tradition.