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Related to Toluidine: Toluidine blue
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



any of three amino derivatives of toluene.

Ortho, meta, and para isomers of toluidines are known (see Table 1). Toluidines are readily soluble in organic solvents but poorly soluble in water; they may be steam-distilled, and they darken (oxidize) upon storage in light in the presence of air.

Toluidines are obtained industrially by the reduction of nitro-toluenes using iron and hydrochloric acid. They are similar to aniline in their chemical properties. They form salts with acids and

Table 1. Selected properties of toluidines
 Melting point (°C)Boiling point (°C)Density at 20°C (g/cm3)
Ortho-toluidine(1,2-). . . . . . . . . .–24,4 (unstable)200.30.9984
Ortho-toluidine (1,6-). . . . . . . . . .–16.25 (stable)200.30.9984
Mete-toluidine(1,3-or 1,5-). . . . . . . . . .–30.4203.40.9891
Para-toluidine (1,4-). . . . . . . . . .44.5–45,0200.551.046

undergo diazotization, acylation, halogenation, sulfonation, and alkylation. Toluidines are used in the manufacture of various dyes.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Toluidine blue staining: To do this staining, after air drying of smears, they were fixed in fresh 96% ethanol-acetone (1:1) at 4[degrees]C for 30 min and then hydrolyzed in 0.1 NHCl at 4[degrees]C for 5 min.
Figure 3 show the cross section of sciatic nerve stained by toluidine blue to Control Group (a), Polyethylene Group (b) and Sugarcane Biopolymer Group (c).
Visualization of SPs on agarose (Dietrich & Dietrich, 1976) / polyacrylamide (Rodrigues et al., 2013) gel by sequential staining with toluidine blue and stains-all (Volpi & Maccari, 2002; Rodrigues et al., 2017b) was conducted by comparison with the electrophoretic mobility of standard compounds dextran sulfate (ca.
Poly(Toluidine Blue O) film and single-walled carbon###0.001-4c###0.37b###Wastewater sample###[65]
The results of toluidine blue staining revealed that cartilage cells in the tendon-bone interface gradually penetrated into the bone cell areas, which formed a 'bone-fibrocartilage-tendon-like' transition area in the SVF-FG treatment group, whereas the tendon-bone interface was mainly composed of collagen fiber connection, with a small amount of blue cells similar to chondrocytes in the control group [Figure 1]b.
Types of pigments: Blacks (carbon black), Blues (basic dye pigments, phthalocyanine, indanthrone, quinacridone, PMA, PTA, methyl, tungstated), Greens (phthalocyanine, PMA, PTA), Reds (toluidine, naphthol, anthanthrone, DPP, manganese 2B, bon maroon, lithol rubine, antrhaquinone, quinacridone, alizarin, lithol rubine, perylene, rhodamine, robine red, AZO complex, bisacetoacetarylide), Yellows and Oranges (mono azo, diarylide, benzimidazolone, dispersion, bismuth vanadate, proprietary, dianisidine, dinitroaniline, hansa, isoindolinone, isoindoline, quinophthalone, naphthol, bisacetoacetarylide)
No metachromatic reaction with toluidine blue or cells with active caspase-1 was detected in the skin of the infected fish (data not shown).
Counterstaining was performed using five different stains (potassium permanganate, methylene blue, toluidine blue, malachite green and blue ink) for 45 seconds, each smear being stained by a different dye.
FNAC smears performed between 2015 and 2016 were subjected to ROSE by a cytopathologist to check for adequacy of the diagnostic material after staining with toluidine blue (Nice Chemicals) for 1 min.
This study was conducted to investigate the microstructure of the hedgehog's small intestine and mast cell distribution by conventional HE and modified toluidine blue staining, respectively.