Timbuktu

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Timbuktu

(tĭm'bŭkto͞o`, tĭmbŭk`to͞o), city (1987 pop. 31,925), central Mali, near the Niger River. Connected with the Niger by a series of canals, Timbuktu is served by the small river port of Kabara. Its salt trade and handicraft industries make it an important meeting place for the nomadic people of the Sahara.

Timbuktu was founded (11th cent.) by the TuaregTuareg
or Touareg
, Berbers of the Sahara, numbering c.2 million. They have preserved their ancient alphabet, which is related to that used by ancient Libyans.
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 as a seasonal camp. By the 14th cent., when it was part of the Mali empire (see History under MaliMali
, officially Republic of Mali, independent republic (2015 est. pop. 17,468,000), 478,764 sq mi (1,240,000 sq km), the largest country in W Africa. Mali is bordered on the north by Algeria, on the east and southeast by Niger, on the south by Burkina Faso and Côte
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), it had become one of the major commercial centers of the W Sudan region, famous for its gold trade. Under the SonghaiSonghai
or Songhay
, largest of the former empires in the western Sudan region of N Africa. The state was founded (c.700) by Berbers on the Middle Niger, in what is now central Mali. The rulers accepted Islam c.1000.
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 empire (15th and 16th cent.) the city was a great Muslim educational center, with more than 100 Qur'anic schools and a university centered at the Sankoré mosque, one of three great mosques there that are outstanding examples of local earthen buildings.

Timbuktu was sacked in 1593 by invaders from Morocco and never again recovered its leading position. It was repeatedly conquered by neighboring peoples until it was captured (1894) by the French. In recent years it has been threatened by the desertification of the surrounding region, and in 2012–13 it and the rest of N Mali was seized by Tuareg and Islamist rebels. After the Islamists gained ascendancy over their Tuareg allies, they destroyed city shrines to local Sufi saints (later rebuilt) as well as some of the city's ancient manuscripts.

Timbuktu

 

(also Tombouctou), a city in Mali, on the left bank of the Niger River. Population, 10,400 (1969). Timbuktu is a junction of caravan routes and a center for trade in salt, dates, and tobacco. The city was founded in the 11th or 12th century as a transfer point for caravan trade. In the 13th through 15th centuries Timbuktu was the most important economic and cultural center of the medieval state of Mali and, at the turn of the 16th century, of the Songhai kingdom. In 1893 the French seized Timbuktu. Its economic significance declined in the 20th century.

Timbuktu’s architectural monuments include numerous tombs and several important mosques—Dyingueré Ber (begun in the 13th century and rebuilt several times; it contains a series of courtyards and halls divided by columns), Sankoré (begun in the 14th century and rebuilt from the 16th through 18th centuries), and Sidi-Yahia (built circa 1440 and later restored). Timbuktu also has a museum of local lore.

Timbuktu

fabled land of wealth and splendor. [Eur. Hist.: Brewer Dictionary, 1084]

Timbuktu

figuratively, the end of the earth. [Am. Usage: NCE, 2749]

Timbuktu

a town in central Mali, on the River Niger: terminus of a trans-Saharan caravan route; a great Muslim centre (14th--16th centuries). Pop.: 31 925 (latest est.)

Timbuktu

Popular remote control software for Windows and the Mac from Netopia, Inc., a Motorola company, Emeryville, CA (www.netopia.com). Timbuktu supports AppleTalk, TCP/IP, IPX, Skype software and Apple Remote Access protocols as well as direct dial up. Users can control, view and transfer files between Macs and Windows.
References in periodicals archive ?
After visiting the town in 2009, the Tombouctou Manuscripts Project has committed to assisting local efforts to preserve and begin research into these manuscripts, through skills training of the local custodians.
Parallelement, trois soldats maliens sont morts dans une embuscade dans la region de Tombouctou (nord-ouest).
Le film met en evidence, l'envahissement de la ville malienne Tombouctou par des islamistes qui y imposent la charia.
Une autre insuffisance decelee par la mission a eu trait a l'Insuffisante de la sensibilisation des electeurs sur la delocalisation de certains centres de vote depuis l'election presidentielle de juillet/aout 2013, en particulier dans les regions de Gao et Tombouctou (nord).
See "Crise malienne: quand Mahmoud Dicko entre en scene," Jeune Afrique, July 26, 2012; Paul Mben, "Tiebile Drame, Vice-President de la Coalition pour le Mali: 'La voie est ouvert, le gouvernement doit bouger,'" 22 Septembre, August 30, 2012; "Missions dans les Regions de Kidal, Gao, et Tombouctou du 17 au 24 Aout 2012, Rapport de Synthese," Coalition for Mali, August 27, 2012.
De son cote, Rudolph Atallah, membre eminent du Centre Michael Ansari pour l'Afrique relevant du Think-Tank americain "Atlantic Council", a egalement fait etat de l'implication d'elements du "polisario" dans les affrontements armes au Mali, notamment dans la prise et le controle de Tombouctou par les groupes islamistes, dont celui d'Ansar Edine, responsable de la destruction de sites du patrimoine culturel et religieux maliens dans cette ville mythique.
Le chef de l'Etat francais - "Papa Francois Hollande", comme l'ont surnomme les habitants de Tombouctou, "frere de tous les Maliens et ami sincere de l'Afrique", selon le president malien par interim Dioncounda Traore - a denonce avec force la "barbarie" des groupes islamistes armes en visitant la cite emblematique de Tombouctou, mutilee par les jihadistes.
Bound up with the desert's mystery are the Tuareg, nomads who for centuries ran camel caravans carrying salt, gold and meat from the ancient cities of Tombouctou, Gao and Djenne to the ports of the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts.
J'ai tout juste edite chez l'Anep, un beau livre, [beaucoup moins que] La route de l'or [beaucoup plus grand que], sur le commerce transsaharien du 9e au 19e siecles entre Tlemcen, Bejaia, Tombouctou.
Les participants entreprendront une marche a travers les ksours de Talha, Ait Issa Oubrahim, Ouled Youssef, Znaga, Oulad Mheia avant d'atteindre le site du festival qui aura lieu a Sidi Khalil, a la limite de la palmeraie, ancien point de depart des caravanes pour Tombouctou et Taoudenni.
Le Mali est depuis trois semaines le theatre d'une operation militaire francaise qui a permis de reprendre aux groupes armes plusieurs villes du pays dont Tombouctou (nord).