a unit of measurement for freight turnover in rail, river, truck, air, and animal-drawn transport, as well as in carriage by rolling stock. Rated ton-kilometers are determined on the basis of rated distances (as a rule, the shortest); operational ton-kilometers are determined on the basis of the actual distances covered. In the USSR there are two types of operational ton-kilometers, net (tonno-kilometr netto) and gross (tonno-kilometr brutto). Net ton-kilometers are computed by multiplying the weight of the cargo and its packaging in tons by the distance in kilometers. Gross ton-kilometers are calculated by adding to the weight of the cargo and packaging the weight, in tons, of the means of conveyance, for example, a railroad car, truck, or barge.