Tonghak

Tonghak

 

the teaching of the Tonghak religious sect, which developed in Korea in the second half of the 19th century. The teaching was formulated by the impoverished yangban (aristocrat) Choe Che-u (1824–64) and gained popularity in southern Korea in the early 1860’s. Directed against feudal oppression and the official ideology of Confucianism, Tonghak included elements of Buddhism, the teachings of Lao-Tzu, and Christianity. It acknowledged the identity of human beings with a higher being and the right of all people to equality on earth.

From the 1860’s to the 1880’s, organizations of the Tonghak sect were formed throughout Korea. Under their influence, the peasant movements of the second half of the 19th century—including the most important movement, the Peasant Uprising of 1893–94—sought the establishment of equality and of freedom of religion.

References in periodicals archive ?
called the Tonghak Uprising staged "the largest scale peasant
This ossified Korean neo-Confucianism, which inculcated the worst of the economy-stalling anti-mercantilism and isolationism, would face a new challenge with the Tonghak movement begun by Ch'oe Cheu, who was martyred in 1864, but whose followers expanded in number after that to lead a full-scale uprising in 1894 that would trigger the beginning of the end of the Choson dynasty (Kallander, 2013).
linked to the practice of people's assemblies" of the Tonghak (Eastern Learning) Rebellion, they "represent[ed] the people" against the old elites and the state and also "absorbed much of the ideology of the reformist elites" since 1894, Yumi Moon explains.
And in "Tonghak Thoughts and Life Culture Movement," Kim wrote that "love should become respect in the age of environmental crisis" (256; on this see also Kim, Wong-chung).
Shortly thereafter, he perused the Four Classics of Confucianism, The Diamond Sutra (Vajracchedika Prajnaparamita Sutra) of Buddhism, The Yellow Emperor's Hidden Talisman Classic (Huangdi Yinfujing) of Taoism, The Canon of Eastern Learning (Donggyong daejon) of the Korean Tonghak religion, and the Old and New Testaments of Christianity, among others.
Ch'ondogyo was founded by Ch'oe Che-u (1824-1864), and was an outgrowth of the Tonghak (eastern learning) movement.
These included constitutional monarchy advocated by the Enlightenment Party (kaehwapa) and populist traditionalism demanded by adherents of the indigenous religion Tonghak (Eastern Learning).
The French (1866) and American (1871) attacks and the Tonghak Uprising (1894-95) provided opportunities for courageous men to distinguish themselves on battlefields.
Asian millenarianism; an interdisciplinary study of the Taiping and Tonghak rebellions in a global context.
Silhak ("Practical Learning"), of the eighteenth century, and Tonghak ("Eastern Learning"), of the nineteenth century, are often cited as the two most important philosophical and social thoughts in leading to the beginning of modern womanhood in Korea.
Tonghak Ecofeminist Reinterpretation of Sin, Evil, and Spirituality in Relation to the Ecological Crisis
(10) In the theology of the Korean minjung religions such as Tonghak (11) and Chungsan, (12) however, this is reversed: God and the world are open-ended to the people.