called the Tonghak
Uprising staged "the largest scale peasant
This ossified Korean neo-Confucianism, which inculcated the worst of the economy-stalling anti-mercantilism and isolationism, would face a new challenge with the Tonghak
movement begun by Ch'oe Cheu, who was martyred in 1864, but whose followers expanded in number after that to lead a full-scale uprising in 1894 that would trigger the beginning of the end of the Choson dynasty (Kallander, 2013).
linked to the practice of people's assemblies" of the Tonghak
(Eastern Learning) Rebellion, they "represent[ed] the people" against the old elites and the state and also "absorbed much of the ideology of the reformist elites" since 1894, Yumi Moon explains.
And in "Tonghak
Thoughts and Life Culture Movement," Kim wrote that "love should become respect in the age of environmental crisis" (256; on this see also Kim, Wong-chung).
Shortly thereafter, he perused the Four Classics of Confucianism, The Diamond Sutra (Vajracchedika Prajnaparamita Sutra) of Buddhism, The Yellow Emperor's Hidden Talisman Classic (Huangdi Yinfujing) of Taoism, The Canon of Eastern Learning (Donggyong daejon) of the Korean Tonghak
religion, and the Old and New Testaments of Christianity, among others.
These included constitutional monarchy advocated by the Enlightenment Party (kaehwapa) and populist traditionalism demanded by adherents of the indigenous religion Tonghak
The French (1866) and American (1871) attacks and the Tonghak
Uprising (1894-95) provided opportunities for courageous men to distinguish themselves on battlefields.
Asian millenarianism; an interdisciplinary study of the Taiping and Tonghak
rebellions in a global context.
Silhak ("Practical Learning"), of the eighteenth century, and Tonghak
("Eastern Learning"), of the nineteenth century, are often cited as the two most important philosophical and social thoughts in leading to the beginning of modern womanhood in Korea.
Ecofeminist Reinterpretation of Sin, Evil, and Spirituality in Relation to the Ecological Crisis
(10) In the theology of the Korean minjung religions such as Tonghak
(11) and Chungsan, (12) however, this is reversed: God and the world are open-ended to the people.