Tonkin

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Tonkin

(tŏn`kĭn`, tŏng`–), historic region (c.40,000 sq mi/103,600 sq km), SE Asia, now forming the heartland of N Vietnam. The capital was HanoiHanoi
, city (1997 est. pop. 3,500,800), capital of Vietnam, on the right bank of the Red River. It is the transportation hub of the country, with two airports and rail connections to Kunming, China, as well as to the main Chinese system centering on Beijing; it is also linked
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. Tonkin was bordered on the north by China, on the east by the Gulf of Tonkin, on the south by the historic region of AnnamAnnam
, historic region (c.58,000 sq mi/150,200 sq km) and former state, in central Vietnam, SE Asia. The capital was Hue. The region extended nearly 800 mi (1,290 km) along the South China Sea between Tonkin on the north and Cochin China on the south.
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, and on the S and W by Laos. The region of Tonkin was conquered in 111 B.C. by the Chinese, who ruled until they were ousted in A.D. 939, at which time the area became independent. The inhabitants began a southward expansion, and by 1471 they had acquired the kingdom of ChampaChampa
, the kingdom of the Chams, which flourished in Vietnam from the 2d cent. A.D. until the 17th cent. At its greatest extent it occupied Annam as far north as central Vietnam. Its culture was strongly affected by Hindu influences.
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. After the division of the Vietnamese lands between two dynasties in 1558, the northern half was ruled from the city of Tonkin (modern Hanoi); thus the name of Tonkin came to be applied by Europeans to the whole area. The two regions were reunited in 1802 under the rule of the restored line of Hue as part of the empire of Vietnam. To open the Red River to French trade, French expeditions were sent into Tonkin in 1873 and 1882; that of 1882 resulted in a full-scale colonial war, complicated by Chinese intervention (China also claimed the region) against the French. In 1884, Annam accepted a French protectorate, conceding France a separate protectorate over Tonkin with control more direct than over Annam. In 1887, Tonkin became part of the Union of Indochina. In World War II, the region was occupied (1940–45) by the Japanese. After the war Tonkinese and Annamese nationalist leaders joined in demanding independence for the state of Vietnam, and Tonkin was torn by guerrilla warfare between the French and the Viet Minh nationalists led by Ho Chih Minh. The name also appears as Tongking and Tonking.

Tonkin

 

(1) The Portuguese corrupt pronunciation of “Donkinh, ” one of the names of the capital of medieval Vietnam, the city of Thang Long (present-day Hanoi; literally, “eastern capital”).

(2) The European name for the northern part of Vietnam from the 16th to 19th centuries.

(3) The name of the region of Vietnam situated north of the present-day province of Thanhhoa after the country’s takeover in 1884 by French colonialists. In official French documents the area was referred to as the protectorate of Tonkin. In 1887 it became part of the Indochinese Union. After the Democratic Republic of Vietnam was formed in 1945, the region was renamed Bac Bo (“northern section”).

The name “Tonkin” is now obsolete.

Tonkin

, Tongking
1. a former state of N French Indochina (1883--1946), on the Gulf of Tonkin: forms the largest part of N Vietnam
2. Gulf of. an arm of the South China Sea, bordered by N Vietnam, the Leizhou Peninsula of SW China, and Hainan Island. Length: about 500 km (300 miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
Mahayana Buddhism increasingly came to fill that role: it was a perfect foil to the Neo-Confucian foundation of the Tonkinese state, while its syncretic nature allowed all sorts of local spirits to be venerated in its pagodas.
Tonkinese (tong-kih-ne-z) First established in Canada, the Tonkinese was developed by breeding Siamese and Burmese cats in the 1960s.
The pace is picked up in the second scene at the beach, where you are introduced to Bloody Mary, a Tonkinese trader, who sells items made in the plantations on the island.
Cats and dogs Lisa King, 32, of Shepley is a dog groomer who has just become West Yorkshire's first Tonkinese cat breeder.
Cable romances Renita Croney's Tonkinese girl, Liat.
Danieley's gentle, boyish openness made Joe's romance with lovely Tonkinese girl Liat (Renita Croney) especially moving, while the conflict that stymies his surrender to love is another of the book's more awkward hurdles.
My, who in her late seventies was the eldest participant, had received three years of education and spoke in Tonkinese.
Breeds are listed alphabetically beginning with Abyssinian, progressing through American Shorthair and American Wirehair, Burmese, Chartruex, Havana Brown and Tonkinese.
As we climbed 5,000 feet up the Tonkinese Alps, we passed by more than one tourist bus which had become stuck in the mud but our jeep just about made it.
We awoke 10 hours later in the Chinese border town of Lao Cai, where an old Russian jeep was waiting to drive us 5,000 feet up into the Tonkinese Alps to the former French hill station of Sa Pa.
As we climbed 5,000 feet up the Tonkinese Alps, we passed more than one tourist bus which had become stuck in the mud - but our jeep just about made it.
The story reaches its climax when an American lieutenant, in love with a young Tonkinese woman, overcomes his fear of marrying her.