The historical truth is that centurions of Rome, janissaries of Turkey and Tonton Macoutes
of Haiti have won and held more power over longer periods than officials freely elected by the people.
: milicianos paramilitares que sostenian la dictadura duvalierista.
The regimes of both leaders tortured and killed political opponents and relied on a dreaded civilian militia known as the Tonton Macoutes
. In 1971, Francois Duvalier suddenly died of an illness and named his son to succeed him.
An essential part of the dictators' terror mechanism was the dreaded armed group officially called Volontaires de la Securite Nationale (VSN), widely known as the Tonton Macoutes
. "Papa Doc" created the Tonton Macoutes
(kreyol ayisien, Haitian Creole for "uncle bogeyman") in 1959 because he feared that, after an attempted coup the previous year, the military could eventually succeed in overthrowing him.
Jeb Sprague's superbly resourced book uncovers the communications and actions linking the Duvalierist Tonton Macoutes
(becoming the attaches) and the installed coup leaders when Aristide was deposed right after he was elected in 1991, and then again in the preparation after 2000 leading to the second anti-Aristide coup in 2004; the links among the military, paramilitaries (FRAPH death squad, FAd'H, FLRN), Haitian National Police, NGOs, the roles of USAID and CIDA, foreign governments and transnational corporations, drug traffickers and the arms trade.
Other Haitians arrived in the 20th century fleeing political upheaval, poverty and oppression during the barbaric regime of Papa Doc Duvalier, which held power from the 1950s to '70s, marked by reigns of terror and the brutality of his private militia, the Tonton Macoutes
Although his body was never found, he is believed to have been shot in 1964 by the country's feared Tonton Macoutes
In Haiti, Luckner Cambronne, leader of dictator Duvalier's dreaded Tonton Macoutes
, not only assassinated political opponents and
The Tonton Macoutes
, a secret police force loyal to Duvalier and his father who ruled before him, have been accused of kidnapping, torturing and killing up to 30,000 suspected opponents during the 1960s and 1970s.
He renamed the Tonton Macoutes
, a much feared group of secret police who served "Papa Doc", changing the name to "the volunteers for national security." However, he did not get rid of them.
Los largos anos de los Duvalier (1957-71) con Francois y luego con su hijo Jean-Claude (1971-86) mostraron los excesos de un poder basado en la fuerza militar de los Tonton Macoutes
. Sin embargo, Papa Doc tambien creo escuelas --la propia Universidad publica--, y asi como mantuvo un orden social estricto, busco "embellecer" la capital, al grado de que, en pleno siglo XXI, hay todavia "nostalgicos" haitianos de la Era Duvalier.
Clasificado en el lugar numero 153 del indice de desarrollo humano sobre 177, la patria del tristemente famoso dictador Francois Duvalier, mejor conocido como Papa Doc que goberno el pais sanguinariamente desde 1957 hasta 1974 --cuando murio y le sucedio en el poder su hijo Jean-Claude Duvalier, Baby Doc-- utilizando a su banda de asesinos llamados Tonton Macoutes
que ademas del terror se valian del vudu para dominar al pueblo, registra los peores indices regionales de natalidad infantil y en analfabetismo.