The historical truth is that centurions of Rome, janissaries of Turkey and Tonton Macoutes
of Haiti have won and held more power over longer periods than officials freely elected by the people.
Al dia siguiente, un destacamento de tonton macoutes
(3) se presento en el mercado siniestrado, interrogando a la gente sobre el origen de esa repentina inundacion proveniente de la nada y queriendo averiguar sobre todo que habia pasado con Madame Jobert, pues era el ultimo lugar donde se habia visto viva a la miliciana.
The regimes of both leaders tortured and killed political opponents and relied on a dreaded civilian militia known as the Tonton Macoutes
Papa Doc" created the Tonton Macoutes
(kreyol ayisien, Haitian Creole for "uncle bogeyman") in 1959 because he feared that, after an attempted coup the previous year, the military could eventually succeed in overthrowing him.
Undercover agents, without a doubt all members of the infamous Tonton Macoutes
, scouted the hotel, searching the top of the buildings, hallways, offices, and all the guest rooms to ensure that the hotel was secure.
Jeb Sprague's superbly resourced book uncovers the communications and actions linking the Duvalierist Tonton Macoutes
(becoming the attaches) and the installed coup leaders when Aristide was deposed right after he was elected in 1991, and then again in the preparation after 2000 leading to the second anti-Aristide coup in 2004; the links among the military, paramilitaries (FRAPH death squad, FAd'H, FLRN), Haitian National Police, NGOs, the roles of USAID and CIDA, foreign governments and transnational corporations, drug traffickers and the arms trade.
Other Haitians arrived in the 20th century fleeing political upheaval, poverty and oppression during the barbaric regime of Papa Doc Duvalier, which held power from the 1950s to '70s, marked by reigns of terror and the brutality of his private militia, the Tonton Macoutes
Every now and then, you could spot a few men who had the strut of former Tonton Macoutes
Although his body was never found, he is believed to have been shot in 1964 by the country's feared Tonton Macoutes
In Haiti, Luckner Cambronne, leader of dictator Duvalier's dreaded Tonton Macoutes
, not only assassinated political opponents and
Perversely, they become enforcers, perpetuating violence and victimazation, and thus emulate the Tonton Macoutes
, as they police their daughters' bodies.
The Tonton Macoutes
, a secret police force loyal to Duvalier and his father who ruled before him, have been accused of kidnapping, torturing and killing up to 30,000 suspected opponents during the 1960s and 1970s.