Notably, this includes confronting banks with independent model-based estimates - a so-called top-down model
We don't consider our agency a traditional top-down model
either, instead encouraging collaboration on every level so everyone feels they have, and are appreciated for, their voice.
As development theory has advanced in recent years, greater recognition has been paid to the importance of local knowledge and transitioning from the historic 'top-down model
' of aid.
Today, farmers are in distress, businessmen are angry over botched tax reforms and most importantly, his core support base of youths are restless because of rising unemployment in Gujarat, a state that has been the laboratory of Modi's top-down model
We used a top-down model
, because leadership creates conditions that allow permission.
This type of top-down model
did not influence and improve the health of the community meaningfully.
While human subject research public policy was created using a top-down model
from the Federal government, MRC chose to implement federal policy using a hybrid model of implementation that meets federal requirements, while capitalizing on the role the local actors can play in the implementation process.
From the outset, the project aimed to encourage student ownership and agency, and deliberately avoided a top-down model
in which faculty would guide the research activities.
Now this top-down model
of online learning is being joined by a surge in new commercial and university offerings.
Barclays Plc analyst, Ian Scott, and colleagues said, 'Although bottom-up analysts have already increased their 2015 revenue growth forecasts from 2 percent to 4 percent since late January, our top-down model
suggests a further acceleration is imminent, with 6 percent likely for the year as a whole.
Whereas the top-down model
suggests that producers largely determine how consumers behave, the bottom-up model suggests that consumers decide how markets operate.