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the branch of onomastics that studies toponyms (place names), their meaning, structure, origin, and area of distribution. The aggregate of toponyms for a given area constitutes its toponymy. Microtoponymy is the study of the names of such smaller geographical units as localities, springs, whirlpools, and farmlands. Toponymy is closely interrelated with geography, history, and ethnography.

Toponymy is an important research tool in historical lexicology, dialectology, and etymology. Some toponyms, particularly hydronyms, preserve archaisms and older dialectical features and often originate in the substrate languages of a given area. Toponymy aids in reconstructing the history of peoples and in defining the boundaries within which they lived. It also helps to determine the areas in which languages were once prevalent and to locate former cultural and economic centers and trade routes. The transcription of toponyms establishes their original spelling and the period of their introduction into other languages; this information is used in military cartography and in all types of communication.


Nikonov, V. A. Vvedenie v toponimiku. Moscow, 1965.
Popov, A. I. Geograficheskie nazvaniia. Moscow-Leningrad, 1965.
Zhuchkevich, V. A. Obshchaia toponimika, 2nd ed. Minsk, 1968.
Pospelov, E. M. Toponimika i kartografiia. Moscow, 1971.
Murzaev, E. M. Ocherki toponimiki. Moscow, 1974.


References in periodicals archive ?
However, the name may also have been compounded from appellatives and the overlap with German toponyms may be incidental.
(55) The placement of the missing Jannat-Abad is tentative and other toponyms are estimates.
privileges the most recent toponyms but his sense of history requires
List of the known strongholds in historical Vorumaa, with local toponyms and place-lore motifs regards them No.
In contrast, under Thabo Mbecki's 'African Renaissance' policy, postapartheid South Africa was eager to get rid of toponyms in English and Afrikaans, designating and adding nine other local languages as its official ones (Guillorel, 2008).
Since Li's (1937) seminar research on local languages in South China, scholars from various disciplines such as linguistics, ethnics, history, and geography have studied the toponyms in Yunnan from various perspectives.
Thomas Catton was a fellow of the Royal Society like the other savants honoured in northern Yukon; (2) that he was well known to John Herschel, and Franklin placed the toponyms for Catton Point and Herschel Island in proximity; (3) that his name is spelt correctly in Franklin's text, which would have been easy to correct, while Kendall's map would have been costly to adjust once engraved.
Certain myths thus directly refer to the creation of the major topographic accidents, or, quite simply, of the general configuration of the territory (falls of the cosmic tree, its bark, the resting place of the primordial Anaconda, the palm tree of the Macaw hole, residence of the female dolphin etc; respectively the Cahuinari, the Pama, a lake of the Cahuinari before its mouth on the Caqueta, the Araracuara rapids, those of La Pedrera, referring here only to the most important toponyms).
Wheatley (18) concludes that 'it would seem likely that the name Taruma was also probably adopted from the subcontinent' although, he continues, there may have been influence from a local toponym, for example, the river Citarum.
In Russia there is quite a number of toponyms derived or copied from personal or place names of western European origin, mostly German.
Although they are actually not solving anything considering the maximalist requests of Greece--aside the name, we should also change our identity, change the Constitution, and the passports, and use the Greek toponyms for the places in Greece, according to diplomatic sources for FORUM they will meet once more before 7 December.