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the branch of onomastics that studies toponyms (place names), their meaning, structure, origin, and area of distribution. The aggregate of toponyms for a given area constitutes its toponymy. Microtoponymy is the study of the names of such smaller geographical units as localities, springs, whirlpools, and farmlands. Toponymy is closely interrelated with geography, history, and ethnography.

Toponymy is an important research tool in historical lexicology, dialectology, and etymology. Some toponyms, particularly hydronyms, preserve archaisms and older dialectical features and often originate in the substrate languages of a given area. Toponymy aids in reconstructing the history of peoples and in defining the boundaries within which they lived. It also helps to determine the areas in which languages were once prevalent and to locate former cultural and economic centers and trade routes. The transcription of toponyms establishes their original spelling and the period of their introduction into other languages; this information is used in military cartography and in all types of communication.


Nikonov, V. A. Vvedenie v toponimiku. Moscow, 1965.
Popov, A. I. Geograficheskie nazvaniia. Moscow-Leningrad, 1965.
Zhuchkevich, V. A. Obshchaia toponimika, 2nd ed. Minsk, 1968.
Pospelov, E. M. Toponimika i kartografiia. Moscow, 1971.
Murzaev, E. M. Ocherki toponimiki. Moscow, 1974.


References in periodicals archive ?
There are wetland sites that have similar place-lore as dry land burial places: finds of human remains, stories of people having been buried, or toponyms that indicate burials.
In particular I found the comparison between fishing ground toponyms in each location illuminating, particularly because, like most urban readers, fishing ground names are an area I am less familiar with than, for example, road names or house names.
The toponym referred broadly to the eastern end of the Straits and signified the status of Chateau Bay as an important landmark and destination for early Atlantic crossings (Cartier's record does not reveal if he ever entered Chateau Bay).
Research on Arab-Palestinian toponyms and names of natural sites is not abundant, and it ranges from studies employing lexical sources only (Kliot, 1989) to those making richer use of qualitative methods, such as ethnography (Dahamshe, 2009).
The same holds true of PUs with toponyms whose connotations are universal, since they may originate from the common background, are connected with events of particular significance, and are universally known to the vast majority of language users.
Toponimia si onomastica in serviciul istoriei), (8) Moara Seaca, Moara Dracilor (Valea Cernii), Moara Surii (Muntii Maramurecului), the cave Moara lui Pocol (Judetul Salaj), Moara Noua, Moara Cheia Taccai (Valea Muntelui, Bicaz), Moara Calugarilor (Bucovina), Moara de Apa, Dambul Morii (Bracov), Pectera Valea Morii (Arad county), The Valea Morii toponym is found on the entire territory (Alba county, Dambovita county, Bacau county, Satu Mare county), Valea Mom (Cluj county), Valea Morii river, branch of Timic river, Cheile Moara Dracului (Rarau mountain).
Years of election to learned societies for persons honoured with toponyms assigned by Capt.
The mode of memorizing is double: it makes conjoined lists of toponyms that follow an upstream/ downstream succession and/or conversely for the rivers or in a successive link for toponyms that are within a terrestrial path.
The book includes a Bibliography and four helpful Indices: of Authors and Works, of Names, of Toponyms, and of Subjects.
the country's toponyms, was greatly assisted by a Poetry
Following the 2008 Summit in Bucharest, the Macedonian PM wrote to the UN Secretary General that the Greek authorities have for decades been contesting the identity of Macedonians, they have a strong assimilation politics by banning the Macedonian language, practice of culture, they alter the toponyms and punish Mace-donian activists.
Storied Landscapes relays many fascinating aspects of the ethno-religious experience on the prairies ranging from the venerated German Catholic Marian shrines of Saskatchewan, to the commemoration of the tragic mass burial of forty Ukrainian children and two adult settlers stricken by scarlet fever at Patterson Lake Manitoba in 1899, to the commemoration of farm toponyms and the heartfelt re-enactment of their first landings at Willow Point by Manitoba's Icelanders, to the unique discussions within the Mennonite community on the inherent complicity of prairie immigrant settlers in the dislocation of aboriginal peoples from the western landscape.