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an elevation on the northeastern outskirts of the city of Van in Turkey; from the eighth to sixth centuries B.C., the site of the fortress of Rusahinili, the residence of the kings of Urartu. The fortress was built next to the city of Tushpa, the Urartu capital. Archaeological excavations at Toprakkale have been carried on intermittently since 1879 by British, German, and Russian teams. Palace and temple remains have been examined, and many objects characteristic of the Urartu culture have been found—mainly bronze and ivory figurines of deities and griffins. Finds from the 1916 excavations by I. A. Orbeli and N. Ia. Marr are in the Hermitage museum in Leningrad.