a type of criminal punishment in Russia, first used during the 15th century. It consisted in public whipping in market squares (torgovye ploshchadi) or other public places. Torgovaia kazn’ is mentioned in the Sudebnik (Law Code) of 1497 as a punishment for theft, in the case of a first offense, or for ploughing beyond the boundary of one’s plot. The Sobornoe Ulozhenie (Assembly Code) of 1649 substantially broadened the number of cases where torgovaia kazn’ was used, both by itself and in addition to other punishments, such as imprisonment. Legislation of the first quarter of the 18th century and later, however, gradually replaced torgovaia kazn’ with other forms of corporal punishment.