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Related to Torpediniformes: Pristiformes



an order of fish. The body, which is flat, almost round, thick, and meaty, reaches 1.8 m in length and weighs as much as 90 kg. Electrical organs are located on the sides. Fish of the order live in tropical and subtropical seas, primarily in shallow water; some species live at depths to 1,000 m. The fish feed on bottom-dwelling invertebrates.

The order embraces three families: Torpedinidae (electric rays), Narkidae, and Temeridae. The Torpedinidae, which include seven genera with 30 species, are quite common. The genus Torpedo has an especially large number of species. The best-known species, Torpedo marmorata, was used by the ancient peoples of the Mediterranean to treat gout. Typhlonarke aysoni lives near New Zealand.

The Torpediniformes are not very important commercially.


Zhizn’ zhivotnykh, vol. 4, part 1. Moscow, 1971.


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Other genera from the order Torpediniformes have fused hypobranchials, e.
There is some variation of the fourth ceratobranquial among the Torpediniformes.
The scapulocoracoid and gill arches are useful for taxonomic or systematic studies, as well as for Torpediniformes phylogenetic analysis.