Results: In the horizontal torsional fatigue tests, the mean torsional angle amplitude in Groups A, B, and C were 6.
The torsional angle was automatically recorded by the device [Figure 2]a, [Figure 2]b, [Figure 2]c.
In the beginning of wheels steering, the deformation of tire produces angle that include slip angle and torsional angle
, which could meet the requirement of large steering radius.
The results are the torsional angle
<p, the bending moment [M.
A linear encoder and a rotary encoder are used to measure the axial displacement and torsional angle
of the specimen, respectively.
where M is the applied moment (torque), L is the length of the DWNT, [phi] is the torsional angle
at the end of the tube and [I.
The conformational analysis for the neutral structures was carried out by changing the torsional angle
([theta], dihedral angle between central two thiophene rings, S-C-C-S) by 20 steps in the same direction between 0 (syn-planar) and 180[degrees] (anti-planar).
When properly installed, it can accept a nominal torsional angle
of up to 8 [degrees]; nominal axial misalignment of 0.
A new structure of DMF with continuously-variable stiffness is proposed to lower the idle speed of the engine, realize high counter torque at a large torsional angle
, and avoid the impact due to the abrupt changes of stiffness .
These features include the number of grooves, grooves taper angle, grooves torsional angle
, grooves depth, and the shape of the grooves' cross section.
The relative torsional angle
between the left and right end sections of a beam element can be calculated by the arcsine function according to the geometrical relationship:
The defined torsional angles
[using the notation of Klyne and Prelog (30)] were implemented in a systematic manner and at each step the conformation was minimized.