Upwards in the sequence, Tortonian
sandstone and clay levels represent the foredeep deposits of the Apennine chain, with a thickness of 800 m .
The palaeontological study of fossil assemblages from the Upper Miocene (Tortonian
) marine deposits of the eastern sector of the Guadalquivir Basin allows interpreting palaeoenvironmental and depositional conditions when this basin acted as a connection between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
flora from the "Gdow Bay" in the South of Poland.
The Middle Miocene of Helvetian and Tortonian
stages can be traced in the Gobustan and Pre-Caspian Guba and in the inter-fluve of the Kura and Iori, where the Tortonian
is spread to the Absheron region.
In contrast, coralline red algae communities become dominant, as most phototrophic carbonate producers thrive in shallow marine environments , especially through Early Miocene to Tortonian
from the Tortonian
of Baja California, Mexico and Cetorhinus sp.
The amount of uplift of this area during the early Tortonian
reached 200-350 m, and during the subsequent episods of tectonic mobility in Messinian and Zanclean time it varied from 75 to 300 m.
Similar evidences were revealed by drillings: the presence of small karst caves at the contact between the Messinian evaporitic formation (Gessoso Solfifera Formation) and the older Tortonian
marls (SanfAgata Fossile Formation).