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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a city under oblast jurisdiction and center of Torzhok Raion, Kalinin Oblast, RSFSR. Situated on the Tvertsa River (a tributary of the Volga), on the Moscow-Leningrad highway, 60 km west of Kalinin. Junction of railroad lines to Rzhev, Likhoslavl’, and Soblago. Population, 49,000 (1974).

Torzhok was first mentioned in 1139. It was the center of a volost (small rural district) of the Novgorod Feudal Republic and was part of the Derevskaia Piatina (seePIATINY). In 1238 the city was destroyed by the Mongol-Tatars. In 1478 it was incorporated into the Muscovite state, and in the early 17th century it was destroyed by the Poles. In 1708, Torzhok became part of Izhora Land, and in 1727, part of Novgorod Province. In 1775 it became a district center of the Tver’ Vicegerency (from 1796, Tver’ Province). Soviet power was established in the city on Oct. 27 (Nov. 9), 1917.

Torzhok has plants for the production of railroad cars, printing inks, machinery, leather goods, and wood products, as well as a creamery. A footwear factory and the Protivopozharnaia Tekhnika company are also located in the city. The ancient craft of gold embroidery has been preserved, with a branch of the Kalininskie Uzory company located in Torzhok.

Scientific and scholarly institutions in Torzhok include the all-Union scientific research institute of flax, a polytechnic school, an industrial-pedagogical technicum, and a pedagogical school. Torzhok has an A. S. Pushkin museum (the poet often stayed in Torzhok during his travels).

Among Torzhok’s architectural monuments are the wooden Church of the Ascension (17th century), the complex of the Boris and Gleb Monastery, the Spaso-Preobrazhenskii Cathedral (1822), the Excursion Palace (late 18th century), the residential buildings in the classical style. The monastery complex includes a cathedral (1785–96; architect N. A. L’vov) and a bell tower (1804; architect Anan’in), both in the classical style, and the father superior’s quarters (1714) and churches from the 17th and 18th centuries.


Baldina, O. D. Ot Valdaia do Staritsy. Moscow, 1968.
Suslov, A. A. Torzhok i ego okrestnosti. Moscow, 1970.
Torzhok. [Photographic album, compiled by L. Andreev and V. Kashkova, with photographs by V. Armand, E. Viazgichev, and P. Lomov. Moscow, 1974.]
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in classic literature ?
At the Torzhok post station, either there were no horses or the postmaster would not supply them.
The postmaster, his wife, the valet, and a peasant woman selling Torzhok embroidery came into the room offering their services.
The Torzhok peddler woman, in a whining voice, went on offering her wares, especially a pair of goatskin slippers.
Schlogel is always ready to share his own impressions of legal and illegal movements across the Soviet Union, including in provincial Russia: "a bus trip from Leningrad to Novgorod and Pskov oblasts; hikes from Torzhok to Lake Seliger, from Ostashov to Rzhev; road trips from Iaroslavl' to Kostroma, to Vologda and the White Lake; a bus trip from Nizhnii Novgorod to Arzamas; a steamboat down the Volga; a trip by car from the Don to the Caucasus; a trip along the plains of Stavropol' and Krasnodar, reminiscent of the American Midwest; and, finally, a trip to Siberia from Krasnoiarsk, traveling upstream along the Enisei River" (461).
The chief of the Aerospace Force's army aviation combat training, Nikolai Pavlenko, also added that the first Mi-28UB helicopters would be delivered to the 344th center of combat training and retraining center in Torzhok.
For instance, Torzhok Plant suffered losses of about Rub 51.5 million (US$900,000) back in 2013, while Nord Ink was balancing right on the edge of profitability, reporting losses of only several thousands dollars in some of previous years.
(2) All-Russian Research Institute for Flax, Torzhok 172002, Russia
Two pilots died in March 2012 after their Ka-52 helicopter crashed during a training flight near the Torzhok military helicopter testing and training center in the Tver Region.
In addition, the extension of the Gryazovets - Vyborg gas pipeline was completed and the SRTO - Torzhok gas pipeline was brought to its design operating mode.
Alexei von Jawlensky (1864-1941), who painted the portrait ofMadame Curie shown here, was born in Torzhok, Russia.