Triplicate water samples from just below the surface were collected for analysis in 1L containers and brought in laboratory for analysis of calcium, Magnesium, Chlorides, total alkalinity
, total hardness, TDS, and Nitrates using standard methods (APHA, 2005) and Hach (2003) procedures.
The applications of the different liming blends to the culture water have significantly increased its total alkalinity
compared with the acidified non-limed tanks.
Total hardness and total alkalinity
both showed a highly significant increase in the downstream river samples E and F in comparison with control sample A both during low Q and high Q periods.
LIQUID ACID--A chemical used to lower pH and total alkalinity
, most commonly muriatic acid.
Theoretically, it would take a very long time for the total alkalinity
to reach 650 ppm, assuming that no precipitation of calcium carbonate occurred.
Apart from the addition of liquid chlorine, which would eventually achieve this anyway, the careful and accurate dosing of caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) would bring about a sharp increase in pH without too much change to the total alkalinity
. Again, this would be most advisable when the pH has dipped below 7.0.
The pH and total alkalinity
of residue sources was correlated with all Zn fractions except the residual fraction.
and calcium hardness cannot be considered separately, as one's target influences the others.
A positive could include one or more violations in any area (e.g., cyanurate levels, algae, bacterial quality, disinfectant/pH chemical feeders, total alkalinity
, and calcium hardness).
Ambient water data including pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, oxidation reduction potential, specific conductivity, total alkalinity
, dissolved iron, and total hardness were recorded in the field.
Kottila and Rauscher, in their paper at the 10th 1SCPPI titled "Selecting the proper material for black liquor concentrators," show how total alkalinity
(NaOH + [Na.sub.2]S) increases dramatically as the solids level of real liquors increases.
These lakes were typically small (15-81 ha surface area), alkaline (85-122 mg/L total alkalinity
), shallow (1.9-3.4 m maximum depth), and submergent aquatic macrophytes were present in all seven lakes (Table 1).