Irradiation

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irradiation

[i‚rād·ē′ā·shən]
(biophysics)
Subjection of a biological system to sound waves of sufficient intensity to modify their structure or function.
(engineering)
The exposure of a material, object, or patient to x-rays, gamma rays, ultraviolet rays, or other ionizing radiation.
(optics)
An optical illusion which makes bright objects appear larger than they really are.

Irradiation

 

in physiology, the spread of excitation or inhibition in the central nervous system. Irradiation plays an important part in cerebrocortical activity. The irradiation of excitation is manifested most distinctly after strong stimulation, when nerve centers usually not involved in a reflex response are drawn into the process. For example, moderate pain inflicted on the skin of an animal’s foot causes the paw to flex in the talocalcaneal joint. Increasing the force of stimulation causes the leg to flex in the knee and hip joints. In studying the effect of an inhibitory conditioned stimulus, I. P. Pavlov showed that inhibition can also spread (irradiate) in the cells of the cerebral cortex.


Irradiation

 

the apparent enlargement of the dimensions of white (light) objects against a black (dark) background (given the comparatively great brightness of the white object) or, conversely, the apparent diminution of the dimensions of black objects against a white background. (The first instance is called positive irradiation; the second, negative.)

As a result of irradiation, a thin black thread or wire observed against a bright flame seems to be interrupted in that segment, and the bright crescent of the new moon seems to have a larger diameter than the ash-gray disk of the moon seen simultaneously with it. The degree of irradiation increases when the brightness of the light background or object increases. Irradiation is caused by optical defects of the eye (spherical and chromatic aberrations), diffraction phenomena in the eye, and imperfect fixation of the eye on the objects observed.

REFERENCE

Kravkov, S. V. Glaz i ego rabota: Psikhofiziologiia zreniia, gigiena osvesh-cheniia, 4th ed. Moscow-Leningrad, 1950. (Includes bibliography.)
References in periodicals archive ?
Krishan's presentation is entitled Comparative Analysis of Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation with Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) Based Conditioning Versus Total Body Irradiation (TBI) for High-Risk Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma (DLCL): Toxicity and Efficacy.
7 times as likely to report diabetes mellitus as those who were not treated with abdominal irradiation or total body irradiation; those treated with total body irradiation were 7.
In 1962, following 11 consecutive failed attempts in the US to transplant kidneys from unrelated donors, he reported 18-month survival in 2 recipients using such kidneys, who had been pre-treated with total body irradiation and given an immunosuppressive drug called 6 MP.
Total body irradiation selectively induces murine hematopoietic stem cell senescence.
But the report contrasts this work to such quiet Manhattan Project experiments as those designed to find what total body irradiation does to people with tumors known to be unresponsive to radiation.
Our center is also working on Partial Breast Irradiation Trials and we will conduct research involving TomoTherapy for total body irradiation and total lymph node irradiation.
Following a pretransplant conditioning regimen that included both chemotherapy and low-dose total body irradiation, the patients received infusions of their treated stem cells.
He showed that total body irradiation reduces the risk of organ rejection, and obtained even better results using a newly developed immunosuppressive drug, azathioprine.
Granisol([TM]) (granisetron HCl) is indicated for the prevention of nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses of emetogenic cancer therapy, including high-dose cisplatin and with radiation, including total body irradiation and fractionated abdominal radiation.
As previously reported, this same 15 mg/kg dose of NEUMUNE administered to monkeys exposed to 600 cGy of total body irradiation conferred a significant survival advantage versus animals receiving placebo.
Hollis-Eden has previously presented data indicating that NEUMUNE can mitigate both neutropenia and thrombocytopenia as well as increase survival in rhesus monkeys exposed to high doses of total body irradiation.