(10) "These contexts include indigenous Totonacs
of Mexico (Smith 2007) rural Africans (Eguavoen 2013; Patt and Schroter 2007; Shaffer and Naiene 2011), some Tibetans (Byg and Salick 2009), and the Marshallese of eastern Micronesia (Rudiak-Gould 2014: 366).
Before the arrival of the Spaniards, Mexico was inhabited by different towns, predominating Tarahumaras and Yakis, in the north; the Mayans, the Totonacs
, the Mixtecs, the Zapotec, the Huastec, and the Totonac
in the south; Olmecs, Toltecs, Teotihuacans, and Aztecs in the central highlands.
(5) Touching at various places along the coast, they eventually reached the central Gulf coast of Mexico on 21 April 1519 and allied with the Totonacs
who inhabited the coast of present-day Veracruz.
And as Schmal put it, the chieftain of the first Indians Cortes met, the Totonacs
. "complained that the Mexica [Aztec] tribute collectors had picked the country clean and that hundreds of young Totonac
children were brought to the altars of |Aztec capital] Tenochtitlan for sacrifice ....
To illuminate local population differences, we compare samples from sites associated with four different cultural groups located in adjacent regions of Mexico: the Toltecs and Mexicas from Central Mexico; the Totonacs
from the Gulf Coast lowlands of Veracruz; and the Maya from the northern lowlands of the Yucatan Peninsula.
It is an impressive site of pyramids contained within a fort built by the Totonacs
. When the Spanish first saw the city they thought it was made of gold because it glowed in the sun.
This past summer, while in Veracruz, Mexico, Romo had the opportunity to photograph the Totonacs
, an indigenous people of farmers who maintain traditional culture and religion yet encourage their young people to attend college.
A solitary man dressed in the indigenous clothing of the Totonacs
of Veracruz thrusts handbills toward indifferent passersby.
In a short but vivid chapter, she shows that this "national democratic project" incorporated many hierarchical relations as well, such as those between men and women, younger men and village elders, and, to a lesser extent, among the various ethnic groups, be they Nahua speakers, Totonacs
, or creoles.
Moctezuma's mistake--and that which led to the end of his empire--was his attempt to buy off the Spanish by giving them a king's ransom in gold with the promise of more if "they would return from whence they came." The bribe had the opposite effect: Cortez and his 400 Spanish adventurers--along with hordes of Totonacs
, Tlaxcalans, and Chalcans, tribes who had long agonized under the cruel domination of the Aztecs--took control of the Aztec empire in 1521.
In the 1400s, Aztec warriors subjugated the Totonacapan, "land of the Totonacs
," exacting part of their tribute in cured vanilla beans, which they used to sweeten a savory beverage enjoyed by members of Moctezuma's court.
(71) Mendieta mentions circumcision among the Totonacs
. (72) In the schools for nobles and priests (calmecac), blood extraction by the boys was frequent.