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Toul(to͞ol), town (1990 pop. 17,702), Meurthe-et-Moselle dept., NE France, on the Moselle River. It is largely an agricultural center but has clothing and glass industries. A Gallo-Roman city, it became a bishopric in the 4th cent. During the Middle Ages, Toul, along with MetzMetz
, city (2010 est. pop. 127,000), capital of Moselle dept., NE France, on the Moselle River. It is a cultural, commercial, and transportation center of Lorraine, an industrial city producing metals, machinery, tobacco, clothing, and food products, and the home of one of
..... Click the link for more information. and VerdunVerdun
, town (1990 pop. 23,427), Meuse dept., NE France, in Lorraine, on the Meuse River. A strategic transportation center, Verdun has varied industries and is situated in an agricultural region.
..... Click the link for more information. , was one of the bishoprics vital to the defense of France's eastern border. These bishoprics were almost continuously independent until their seizure by Henry II of France in 1552. Confirmed as a French possession by the Peace of WestphaliaWestphalia, Peace of,
1648, general settlement ending the Thirty Years War. It marked the end of the Holy Roman Empire as an effective institution and inaugurated the modern European state system.
..... Click the link for more information. in 1648, Toul played a significant role during the Franco-German conflicts of succeeding centuries. A suppression of the episcopal see (c.1801) led to a decline in the city's civil importance. Although severely damaged in the Franco-Prussian WarFranco-Prussian War
or Franco-German War,
1870–71, conflict between France and Prussia that signaled the rise of German military power and imperialism. It was provoked by Otto von Bismarck (the Prussian chancellor) as part of his plan to create a unified German
..... Click the link for more information. (1870–71) and in World War II, Toul preserves the Church of St. Gengoult (13th and 16th cent.); the Cathedral of St. Étienne (13th–14th cent.); an interesting 17th-century fortified enclosure; and ramparts from Gallo-Roman times and from the 16th cent.
a city in France, in Meurthe-et-Moselle Department. Population, 15,200 (1968). Toul, in antiquity a Gallic settlement, was an episcopal see from the fourth century until 1790. In the tenth century Toul, together with Lorraine, became part of the German kingdom, and in the 13th century, it became an imperial city. Toul, along with the cities of Metz and Verdun, was annexed by France in 1552 (confirmed in 1648 by the Treaty of Westphalia). In the late 17th and early 18th centuries, the French engineer S. Vauban rebuilt the city’s fortifications.