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in the USSR, the sport of participating in recreational trips. Touring includes hiking, cross-country skiing, boating, mountaineering, and cycling, as well as recreational trips made by automobile, motorcycle, and moped. Touring was included as a sport in the Uniform All-Union Sports Classification in 1949. Sports ratings and the title of Master of Sport are awarded in touring by taking into account the number of tours that an individual makes, the difficulty of the tours, and the individual’s experience in leading tours independently.
A tour’s difficulty is determined by the length of the route, the amount of time needed to complete the tour, and the number and variety of natural obstacles encountered. Five categories of difficulty have been established for tours lasting more than one day. The more difficult routes, especially those in the fourth and fifth categories, require good overall physical condition and special training. Tours are usually organized by sports and touring clubs, councils of sports societies, and physical-culture collectives. A person may engage in a year-round training by going on tours organized on days off from work or study and by competing in various branches of touring; all-Union competitions are held in several branches.
The procedures for organizing a touring group, filling out necessary papers, and planning and preparing routes, as well as the rights and obligations of participants and leaders, are stated in the Rules for Organizing and Conducting Independent Tours in the USSR, which were confirmed by the Central Council on Tours and Excursions of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions in 1972. Annual all-Union competitions for the best tour undertaken in a given year have been held since 1970. Tours are included in the Ready for Labor and Defense of the USSR physical-culture and sports system. Touring is encouraged and directed by all-Union, republic, krai, and oblast councils on tours and excursions and their respective commissions for certifying routes, sports organizations of the various branches of touring, and other bodies.
In 1974 there were 1,419 touring clubs affiliated with councils on tours and excursions and more than 56,000 clubs and sports organizations of physical-culture collectives. A total of 4.1 million people participated in these organizations; 14,500 tours were made and approximately 600 people were awarded the title of Master of Sport in touring.
REFERENCESVodnyi turizm. Moscow, 1968.
Granil’shchikov, Iu. V., S. G. Veitsman, and V. F. Shimanovskii. Gornyi turizm. Moscow, 1966.
Sbornik rukovodiashchikh materialov po samodeiatel’nomu turizmu, fascs. 1, 3, 4. Moscow, 1973–74.
Sputnik turista, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1969.
IU. A. SHTIURMER