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Related to Touring: Turing
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



in the USSR, the sport of participating in recreational trips. Touring includes hiking, cross-country skiing, boating, mountaineering, and cycling, as well as recreational trips made by automobile, motorcycle, and moped. Touring was included as a sport in the Uniform All-Union Sports Classification in 1949. Sports ratings and the title of Master of Sport are awarded in touring by taking into account the number of tours that an individual makes, the difficulty of the tours, and the individual’s experience in leading tours independently.

A tour’s difficulty is determined by the length of the route, the amount of time needed to complete the tour, and the number and variety of natural obstacles encountered. Five categories of difficulty have been established for tours lasting more than one day. The more difficult routes, especially those in the fourth and fifth categories, require good overall physical condition and special training. Tours are usually organized by sports and touring clubs, councils of sports societies, and physical-culture collectives. A person may engage in a year-round training by going on tours organized on days off from work or study and by competing in various branches of touring; all-Union competitions are held in several branches.

The procedures for organizing a touring group, filling out necessary papers, and planning and preparing routes, as well as the rights and obligations of participants and leaders, are stated in the Rules for Organizing and Conducting Independent Tours in the USSR, which were confirmed by the Central Council on Tours and Excursions of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions in 1972. Annual all-Union competitions for the best tour undertaken in a given year have been held since 1970. Tours are included in the Ready for Labor and Defense of the USSR physical-culture and sports system. Touring is encouraged and directed by all-Union, republic, krai, and oblast councils on tours and excursions and their respective commissions for certifying routes, sports organizations of the various branches of touring, and other bodies.

In 1974 there were 1,419 touring clubs affiliated with councils on tours and excursions and more than 56,000 clubs and sports organizations of physical-culture collectives. A total of 4.1 million people participated in these organizations; 14,500 tours were made and approximately 600 people were awarded the title of Master of Sport in touring.


Vodnyi turizm. Moscow, 1968.
Granil’shchikov, Iu. V., S. G. Veitsman, and V. F. Shimanovskii. Gornyi turizm. Moscow, 1966.
Sbornik rukovodiashchikh materialov po samodeiatel’nomu turizmu, fascs. 1, 3, 4. Moscow, 1973–74.
Sputnik turista, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1969.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


Expedition of Humphrey Clinker, The
describes Bramble family coach trip around 18th-century England. [Br. Lit.: Benét, 486]
Innocents Abroad, The
tour of Europe satirizes the pretentiousness of foreign culture. [Am. Lit.: Haydn & Fuller, 370]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The main reason for touring is not necessarily to make money, says Bonnefoux, but to provide the company's dancers with more opportunities to perform and grow as artists.
There are hot showers and flush toilets, but it's not exactly luxury touring. Instead of indulging themselves, conservation-minded visitors look for the 10 species of local monkeys and take in the sights at a parrot and macaw lick.
In fact, the modern touring phenomenon has its roots in affinity travel.
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This fourteen-member troupe, under the artistic direction of Judith Fugate and Medhi Bahiri, aims to present a diverse repertory and is geared for touring. Many of its dancers, with past affiliations, including American Ballet Theatre, New York City Ballet, and the Joffrey Ballet of Chicago, will be familiar to New York dance audiences.
ThrillCoaster Tours provides a one-of-a-kind coaster touring experience within six weeks of travel.
Throughout the 1950s and 1960s his touring company brought Spanish dance to almost every American town of over 50,000; and he reached a broader audience in such films as Ship of Fools and Around the World in 80 Days.
In today's hectic world, it is difficult to identify adventurous, challenging and breathtaking activities that can offer an unforgettable touring experience.
While the death of the NEA's Dance Touring Program (which provided a 30 percent fee subsidy in the 1970s) has left many companies homebound, Houston Ballet has created a relatively new concept to underwrite touring: a touring endowment.