Townshend Acts

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Townshend Acts,

1767, originated by Charles TownshendTownshend, Charles,
1725–67, English statesman; grandson of the 2d Viscount Townshend. Distrusted for his marked instability, he held relatively minor offices until the 1st earl of Chatham made him chancellor of the exchequer in 1766.
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 and passed by the English Parliament shortly after the repeal of the Stamp ActStamp Act,
1765, revenue law passed by the British Parliament during the ministry of George Grenville. The first direct tax to be levied on the American colonies, it required that all newspapers, pamphlets, legal documents, commercial bills, advertisements, and other papers
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. They were designed to collect revenue from the colonists in America by putting customs duties on imports of glass, lead, paints, paper, and tea. The colonials, spurred on by the writings of John DickinsonDickinson, John,
1732–1808, American patriot and statesman, b. Talbot co., Md. After studying law in Philadelphia and in London at the Middle Temple, he developed a highly successful practice in Philadelphia.
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, Samuel AdamsAdams, Samuel,
1722–1803, political leader in the American Revolution, signer of the Declaration of Independence, b. Boston, Mass.; second cousin of John Adams. An unsuccessful businessman, he became interested in politics and was a member (1765–74) and clerk
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, and others, protested against the taxes. The Boston merchants again boycotted English goods, the Massachusetts Assembly was dissolved (1768) for sending a circular letter to other colonies explaining the common plight, and British troops sent to enforce these laws and keep peace were involved in unpleasant incidents, notably the Boston MassacreBoston Massacre,
1770, pre-Revolutionary incident growing out of the resentment against the British troops sent to Boston to maintain order and to enforce the Townshend Acts. The troops, constantly tormented by irresponsible gangs, finally (Mar.
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. The boycott decreased British trade, and in 1770 most of the Acts were repealed, but retention of the tea tax caused the Boston Tea PartyBoston Tea Party,
1773. In the contest between British Parliament and the American colonists before the Revolution, Parliament, when repealing the Townshend Acts, had retained the tea tax, partly as a symbol of its right to tax the colonies, partly to aid the financially
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.
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References in periodicals archive ?
As a matter of fact, prior to the Revolutionary War the American colonists of 1767 began boycotting the tax that the British placed on imported goods, then known as the "Townshend Act." They boycotted in an attempt to change the policies of the government.
The British parliament passed Stamp Act of 1765 and Townshend Act of 1767.
The Townshend Act's low tax rates were a boon to consumers and the bane of Northern merchants.
This infamous act inspired debate about "taxation without representation." After the repeal of the Stamp Act, the newly passed Townshend Act taxed colonists on imported glass, lead, paints, paper, and tea.
There had been many other previous irritations--the Navigation Act, the Quartering Act, the Townshend Act, etc.
Hancock's name was affixed to virtually all patriot resolutions protesting the Stamp Act, as well as the 1767 Townshend Act. The Townshend Act taxed paper, lead, tea, and paint, and was condemned by a series of legislative resolutions written by Samuel Adams.
Images of Jews became more complex after rebelling colonists were labeled Jews by the British and threatened with "public circumcision" if they continued to revolt against the Townshend Acts of 1767 (22).
She describes the expansion of the English commercial empire in the 18th century; the slow rise of tea drinking in the US and the stimulation of demand; the politics of nonimportation, the Townshend Acts, taxes on tea, and the impact of luxury consumption; the global dimensions of the American tea crisis that preceded the Boston Tea Party; how Americans repatriated tea during the Revolution; and subsequent American commercial independence and trade with China.
Colonial leaders underwent a profound ideological shift in the wake of the hated Townshend Acts [1767], Recalling the seventeenth-century struggle between the Stuart kings and Parliament, they abandoned their Whig principles and sided with the monarchy.
In 1767, Parliament responded to pressure to reduce taxes in England by passing the Townshend Acts. The Townshend Acts placed levies on all English glass, lead, paper, paint, and tea sold in America.