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protein toxintoxin,
poison produced by living organisms. Toxins are classified as either exotoxins or endotoxins. Exotoxins are a diverse group of soluble proteins released into the surrounding tissue by living bacterial cells. Exotoxins have specific reaction sites in the host; e.g.
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 treated by heat or chemicals so that its poisonous property is destroyed but its capacity to stimulate the formation of toxin antibodiesantibody,
protein produced by the immune system (see immunity) in response to the presence in the body of antigens: foreign proteins or polysaccharides such as bacteria, bacterial toxins, viruses, or other cells or proteins.
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, or antitoxinsantitoxin,
any of a group of antibodies formed in the body as a response to the introduction of poisonous products, or toxins. By introducing small amounts of a specific toxin into the healthy body, it is possible to stimulate the production of antitoxin so that the body's
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, remains. Because toxoids can be given in large quantities with no risk of tissue damage, they have superseded the highly poisonous toxins as immunizing agents against such diseases as diphtheria and tetanus.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(also anatoxin), a harmless derivative of a toxin that retains its antigenic and immunogenic properties. It is obtained by rendering the toxin harmless with formalin at 37–40°C. A toxoid suitable for immunizing human beings was first obtained in 1923 by the French immunologist G. Ramon. Tetanus and diphtheria toxoids are used as prophylactic measures against these infections. Staphylococcal, botulin, and dysentery toxoids, toxoids produced by the causative agents of gas gangrene and made from the poisons of some poisonous snakes, and other toxoids have been produced and are used for specific prophylaxis and treatment. Toxoids are also used for immunizing horses in order to obtain medicinal antitoxic serums (antitetanus and antidiphtheria).


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


Detoxified toxin, but with antigenic properties intact; toxoids of tetanus and diphtheria are used for immunization.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Widespread use of tetanus toxoid-containing vaccines (tetanus toxoid inactivated vaccine or a combination vaccine that contains tetanus toxoid) and tetanus immune globulin for wound management has led to a 95% decline in the number of tetanus cases and a 99% decrease in the number of tetanus-related deaths since the 1940s (3).
Similarly, in our study toxoids were prepared from prevalent pathogenic strain and adjuvant with aluminum hydroxide for better protection.
Preventing tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis among adults: Use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine.
To prevent tetanus, ACIP recommends a 5-dose series of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) for children at ages 2, 4, 6, 15-18 months, and 4-6 years, followed by 1 dose of tetanus and diphtheria toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) for adolescents aged 11-12 years.
The company stated the vaccines that will feature the 2D barcode includes Adacel (Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed) vaccine; and Fluzone (Influenza Virus Vaccine).
For each study group, Hiberix was coadministered with recommended routine childhood vaccines (Pediarix [diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (DTaP)/ hepatitis B (HepB)/inactivated poliovirus (IPV)]; Prevnar13 [Pneumococcal 13-valent Conjugate Vaccine], and Rotarix [Rotavirus Vaccine, Live, Oral Suspension]), and noninferiority of immune responses to antigens contained in the coadministered vaccines, with the exception of Rotarix, was assessed.
In March 2006, the CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) issued recommendations on replacing the adolescent tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Td) with Tdap.