Toxoplasma

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Toxoplasma

 

a genus of parasitic protozoa that has one identified species, Toxoplasma gondii. Studies of the life cycle and ultrastructure of T. gondii have shown that it belongs to the order Coccidia.

In the epithelium of the small intestines of cats and other Felidae, the parasites of Toxoplasma proceed through a complex life cycle, which is completed with the formation of minute egglike oocysts similar to those of coccidia of the genus Isospora. Each oocyst contains two spores, each of which develops into four single-celled sporozoites. The mature sporulating oocysts may reinfect felines, in which case the oocysts undergo both asexual and sexual developmental cycles. When the sporulating oocysts enter other mammals, such as mice, as well as birds and man, the oocysts undergo only asexual multiple reproduction.

After entering the macrophages and various organs and tissues, predominantly those of the reticuloendothelial, muscle, and nervous systems, the sporozoites develop into highly fecund mononuclear trophozoites (endozoites) that multiply through a type of internal budding known as endodiogeny. The trophozoites are crescent in shape and measure 4–7 micrometers in length. Their ultrastructure is identical to that of such merozoites as coccidia.

In the chronic form of toxoplasmosis, cysts are formed in a number of organs, including the brain. These cysts contain up to several hundred mononuclear organisms, called cystozoites. The endozoites and cystozoites may infest new hosts, primarily by means of the alimentary tract. Toxoplasma is the source of toxoplasmosis, a severe disease of animals and man.

IU. I. POLIANSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
Toxoplasma gondii (phylum Apicomplexa) es un protozoario parasito con distribucion mundial, capaz de infectar aves, animales mamiferos (terrestres o marinos) y al ser humano.
We, the authors of the article entitled "Detection of infection by Toxoplasma gondii through indirect hemagglutination and PCR in feral wild boar (Sus scrofa)", declare, for the intended purposes; that although, the project with the original data was not submitted for evaluation of the Ethics Committee of the Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso, we are aware of the content of the guidelines of the National Council for Control of Animal Experimentation--CONCEA <http://www.mct.gov.br/index.php/ content/view/310553.html> for studies with animals.
La seroprevalencia de Toxoplasma gondii en cerdos de Lima mediante las tecnicas de HAI y ELISA indirecto fue de 18.7 [+ o -] 3.8% (76/407) y de 14.7 [+ o -] 3.4% (60/407), respectivamente.
Risky business: linking Toxoplasma gondii infection and entrepreneurship behaviours across individuals and countries Stefanie K.
The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in cats through Copro-PCR was significantly higher in males than females (p0.05).
Once the biopsy was reported, in correlation with the clinical evolution and laboratory results, the patient was diagnosed with acute hepatitis secondary to Toxoplasma gondii; therefore, treatment was immediately started (two days before leaving the hospital) with doxycycline 100 mg PO BID, clindamycin 600 mg PO TID, and azithromycin 500 mg PO QD for 10 days.
Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans has been associated with a number of neurological disorders and cognitive changes, including schizophrenia [57, 58].
Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii that may result in life-long colonization in animals and humans (Ali et al., 2017; Nicolle and Manceaux; 1909).
Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan with a worldwide distribution (3).