Oxford movement

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Related to Tractarian: High Church Movement, Puseyites

Oxford movement,

religious movement begun in 1833 by Anglican clergymen at the Univ. of Oxford to renew the Church of England (see England, Church ofEngland, Church of,
the established church of England and the mother church of the Anglican Communion. Organization and Doctrine

The clergy of the church are of three ancient orders: deacons, priests, and bishops.
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) by reviving certain Roman Catholic doctrines and rituals. This attempt to stir the Established Church into new life arose among a group of spiritual leaders in Oriel College, Oxford. Prominent among them were John Henry NewmanNewman, John Henry,
1801–90, English churchman, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, one of the founders of the Oxford movement, b. London. Early Life and Works
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, John KebleKeble, John
, 1792–1866, English clergyman and poet. His career (1807–11) at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, was one of unusual distinction. Made fellow of Oriel College in 1811 and ordained in 1816, he became tutor and examiner, but resigned in 1823 to become his
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, Richard Hurrell Froude, Charles Marriott, and later Edward Bouverie PuseyPusey, Edward Bouverie
, 1800–1882, English clergyman, leader in the Oxford movement. Having studied at Christ Church College, Oxford, Pusey was elected a fellow of Oriel College (1823) and thus became associated with John Keble, John Henry Newman, and their group.
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 and Richard William ChurchChurch, Richard William,
1815–90, English Anglican clergyman. He was educated at Oxford, where he became a follower of John Henry Newman. As dean of St. Paul's (1871–90) he did much to disseminate High Church doctrine.
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. The Oxford movement has exerted a great influence, doctrinally, spiritually, and liturgically not only on the Church of England but also throughout the Anglican Communion.

Early Years: The Tracts

In July of 1833, Keble preached a sermon, On the National Apostasy, which Newman held to be the actual opening of the movement. A few days later a meeting was held at Hadleigh, Suffolk, in the rectory house of Hugh James Rose, "the Cambridge originator of the Oxford movement," and a resolution was made to uphold "the apostolic succession and the integrity of the Prayer-Book." Newman, who felt that extensive popularizing was more effective than organization, immediately launched a series of pamphlets, Tracts for the Times. Later, Keble and Pusey joined him, and their group became known as the Tractarians. To the tracts was added The Library of the Father of the Holy Catholic Church (translations from patristic writings) to encourage a return to the beliefs and customs of the first centuries of the church.

The Tractarians preached Anglicanism as a via media between Roman Catholicism and evangelicalism. Newman became the acknowledged leader in answering critics and advocating the restoration of practices abandoned in the Church of England since the ReformationReformation,
religious revolution that took place in Western Europe in the 16th cent. It arose from objections to doctrines and practices in the medieval church (see Roman Catholic Church) and ultimately led to the freedom of dissent (see Protestantism).
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. When the Tractarians attacked Renn Dickson Hampden, a follower of Richard Whately, the liberals, led by Dr. Thomas Arnold, opposed them openly. After 1834, Pusey was influential in the movement, adding force and dignity to the controversial manner and emphasizing the observance of ritual. Opponents dubbed the movement "Puseyism."

Within the movement itself, a Romanizing party developed under William George WardWard, William George,
1812–82, English Roman Catholic apologist, educated at Oxford. He became (1834) a fellow at Balliol College, Oxford, and was ordained in the Church of England. At first a Broad Churchman, he joined the Oxford movement in 1838.
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, Frederick William FaberFaber, Frederick William
, 1814–63, English theologian and hymn writer. A friend of John Henry Newman and an adherent of the Oxford movement, he became (1843) rector of Eton.
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 and others, and it was partly to counter them that Newman wrote his celebrated Tract 90 on the Thirty-nine Articles, which aroused a storm of opposition and brought the series to an end (1841). The movement lost valuable supporters to Roman Catholicism, including Newman, and Henry Edward ManningManning, Henry Edward,
1808–92, English churchman, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. Early Life and Anglican Churchman

Manning was born of a Low Church family and was educated at Harrow and at Balliol College, Oxford (B.A.
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. The movement to Roman Catholicism was opposed by Pusey, under whose leadership the majority remained loyal to the Church of England. Under Pusey the movement advanced beyond its academic beginning and became an effective vehicle for ecclesiastical and, later, social reform.

Later Years: Changes in Religious Practices

Among the means for renewing deep and personal devotion to the teachings of the Bible, Keble, Newman, and especially Pusey, sought to develop religious community life. Sisterhoods were founded, the first in 1845. They became centers of charitable and social work of importance. Communities for men were fewer and expanded less rapidly.

The Oxford movement also stressed higher standards of worship, and particularly in the later period many changes were made in the church services, e.g., beautification of churches, intonation of services, the wearing of vestments, and emphasis on hymn singing. Every effort to revive ceremonial customs aroused a storm of excitement and opposition leading at times to rioting. This violence culminated in 1860 at St. George's-in-the East, London. Because attention was centered upon the forms of expression in the churches, especially between 1857 and 1871, the followers of the Oxford movement became known as ritualists. Anglo-Catholicism was another name for the movement as its supporters tried to secure in the Established Church recognition of ancient Catholic liturgy and doctrine.

The changes desired by the ritualists caused much public agitation and litigation between 1850 and 1890. In 1874 the Public Worship Regulation Act was passed by Parliament, avowedly to "put down Ritualism." On the part of churchmen the struggle was fought in resistance to secular authority in spiritual affairs. No Anglo-Catholic could recognize the mandates of a purely parliamentary court, such as the judicial committee of the privy council, which, although it lacked spiritual authority, was the supreme court of ecclesiastical appeal. The last imprisonment for refusal to admit its authority was made in 1887, after which such resistance was respected as reasonable.

In later years the followers of the movement placed increasing emphasis on the responsibility of Christians in the life of society and have given much attention to social problems. This social concern led to the foundation of the Christian Social Union in 1889 under Brooke Foss Westcott and Henry Scott Holland.

Bibliography

See R. W. Church, The Oxford Movement (1891; rev. ed. 1970, ed. by G. Best and J. Clive); E. R. Fairweather, The Oxford Movement (1964); M. R. O'Connell, The Oxford Conspirators (1969); R. Chapman, Faith and Revolt (1970).

References in periodicals archive ?
Identifying this ethos as the core of Tractarian thought allows Pereiro to place the Oxford Movement in the tradition of late eighteenth--and early nineteenth-century revivalism: the Tractarians, he argues, understood the culture of revivalism and hoped to bring about a revival within the Church based not on the intellect but on the heart.
Kelly Dean Jolley argues in his recent paper dedicated to the Tractarian proposition 3.
However, if Tractarian "ethos" was as fundamental as Pereiro convincingly argues it was for the Traetarians, then perhaps more weight could have been given to those Tractarian thinkers for whom "ethos" did not necessitate a path to Rome, but who remained in the Church of England.
But, despite his misgivings about the Anglican Church's status, he still had serious problems with the Roman Church, so he carried on with the Tractarian cause, and even published Tract 90 asserting the validity of a catholic interpretation of the Anglican Thirty-nine Articles.
The gathering cloud of Tractarian disquiet with the state of the English Church burst with Newman's conversion of 1845, after which all became clearer.
The final section of the book, "Missions: Churchmanship and Bishoprics," has the feel of padding about it, and if it is reasonable to discuss Pusey's attitude towards Bishop Colenso of Natal, the only moderately tractarian bishop of Toronto seems slightly out of place.
He wrote and edited several books, including A Scholastic Miscellany: Anselm to Ockham, a collection of medieval writings, and The Oxford Movement, a compendium of texts from the Tractarian Movement in 19th-century England.
For Sean Grass, "Laura's failure in Tractarian terms to scrutinize nature for signs of a greater purpose than mere self-indulgence is redeemed by Lizzie's fundamentally Tractarian approach to the problem of redemption and salvation" (372).
16) In the Tractarian tradition, confirmation by the bishop was associated with the authority of the "historic episcopate", including such aspects as a personal link with the minister regarded as the focus of unity in the church, and the receiving of a "sealing with the Spirit" by the person understood to be "the special organ of the Spirit in his own church, by the bestowal of which men are made .
Robinson identified Baptist hesitation over the place of the Spirit in baptism not in the exegesis of biblical texts, but fear, even nearly a century after the Tractarian movement, of baptismal regeneration and magical interpretations of the rite's operation and efficacy.
These late Victorian anthologies, by choosing the more rapt and vernal of Clare's sonnets and those with fewest dialect terms, set up a reading of him as a pious nature poet akin to the Tractarian Keble.