Oxford movement

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Oxford movement,

religious movement begun in 1833 by Anglican clergymen at the Univ. of Oxford to renew the Church of England (see England, Church ofEngland, Church of,
the established church of England and the mother church of the Anglican Communion. Organization and Doctrine

The clergy of the church are of three ancient orders: deacons, priests, and bishops.
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) by reviving certain Roman Catholic doctrines and rituals. This attempt to stir the Established Church into new life arose among a group of spiritual leaders in Oriel College, Oxford. Prominent among them were John Henry NewmanNewman, John Henry,
1801–90, English churchman, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, one of the founders of the Oxford movement, b. London. Early Life and Works
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, John KebleKeble, John
, 1792–1866, English clergyman and poet. His career (1807–11) at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, was one of unusual distinction. Made fellow of Oriel College in 1811 and ordained in 1816, he became tutor and examiner, but resigned in 1823 to become his
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, Richard Hurrell Froude, Charles Marriott, and later Edward Bouverie PuseyPusey, Edward Bouverie
, 1800–1882, English clergyman, leader in the Oxford movement. Having studied at Christ Church College, Oxford, Pusey was elected a fellow of Oriel College (1823) and thus became associated with John Keble, John Henry Newman, and their group.
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 and Richard William ChurchChurch, Richard William,
1815–90, English Anglican clergyman. He was educated at Oxford, where he became a follower of John Henry Newman. As dean of St. Paul's (1871–90) he did much to disseminate High Church doctrine.
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. The Oxford movement has exerted a great influence, doctrinally, spiritually, and liturgically not only on the Church of England but also throughout the Anglican Communion.

Early Years: The Tracts

In July of 1833, Keble preached a sermon, On the National Apostasy, which Newman held to be the actual opening of the movement. A few days later a meeting was held at Hadleigh, Suffolk, in the rectory house of Hugh James Rose, "the Cambridge originator of the Oxford movement," and a resolution was made to uphold "the apostolic succession and the integrity of the Prayer-Book." Newman, who felt that extensive popularizing was more effective than organization, immediately launched a series of pamphlets, Tracts for the Times. Later, Keble and Pusey joined him, and their group became known as the Tractarians. To the tracts was added The Library of the Father of the Holy Catholic Church (translations from patristic writings) to encourage a return to the beliefs and customs of the first centuries of the church.

The Tractarians preached Anglicanism as a via media between Roman Catholicism and evangelicalism. Newman became the acknowledged leader in answering critics and advocating the restoration of practices abandoned in the Church of England since the ReformationReformation,
religious revolution that took place in Western Europe in the 16th cent. It arose from objections to doctrines and practices in the medieval church (see Roman Catholic Church) and ultimately led to the freedom of dissent (see Protestantism).
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. When the Tractarians attacked Renn Dickson Hampden, a follower of Richard Whately, the liberals, led by Dr. Thomas Arnold, opposed them openly. After 1834, Pusey was influential in the movement, adding force and dignity to the controversial manner and emphasizing the observance of ritual. Opponents dubbed the movement "Puseyism."

Within the movement itself, a Romanizing party developed under William George WardWard, William George,
1812–82, English Roman Catholic apologist, educated at Oxford. He became (1834) a fellow at Balliol College, Oxford, and was ordained in the Church of England. At first a Broad Churchman, he joined the Oxford movement in 1838.
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, Frederick William FaberFaber, Frederick William
, 1814–63, English theologian and hymn writer. A friend of John Henry Newman and an adherent of the Oxford movement, he became (1843) rector of Eton.
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 and others, and it was partly to counter them that Newman wrote his celebrated Tract 90 on the Thirty-nine Articles, which aroused a storm of opposition and brought the series to an end (1841). The movement lost valuable supporters to Roman Catholicism, including Newman, and Henry Edward ManningManning, Henry Edward,
1808–92, English churchman, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. Early Life and Anglican Churchman

Manning was born of a Low Church family and was educated at Harrow and at Balliol College, Oxford (B.A.
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. The movement to Roman Catholicism was opposed by Pusey, under whose leadership the majority remained loyal to the Church of England. Under Pusey the movement advanced beyond its academic beginning and became an effective vehicle for ecclesiastical and, later, social reform.

Later Years: Changes in Religious Practices

Among the means for renewing deep and personal devotion to the teachings of the Bible, Keble, Newman, and especially Pusey, sought to develop religious community life. Sisterhoods were founded, the first in 1845. They became centers of charitable and social work of importance. Communities for men were fewer and expanded less rapidly.

The Oxford movement also stressed higher standards of worship, and particularly in the later period many changes were made in the church services, e.g., beautification of churches, intonation of services, the wearing of vestments, and emphasis on hymn singing. Every effort to revive ceremonial customs aroused a storm of excitement and opposition leading at times to rioting. This violence culminated in 1860 at St. George's-in-the East, London. Because attention was centered upon the forms of expression in the churches, especially between 1857 and 1871, the followers of the Oxford movement became known as ritualists. Anglo-Catholicism was another name for the movement as its supporters tried to secure in the Established Church recognition of ancient Catholic liturgy and doctrine.

The changes desired by the ritualists caused much public agitation and litigation between 1850 and 1890. In 1874 the Public Worship Regulation Act was passed by Parliament, avowedly to "put down Ritualism." On the part of churchmen the struggle was fought in resistance to secular authority in spiritual affairs. No Anglo-Catholic could recognize the mandates of a purely parliamentary court, such as the judicial committee of the privy council, which, although it lacked spiritual authority, was the supreme court of ecclesiastical appeal. The last imprisonment for refusal to admit its authority was made in 1887, after which such resistance was respected as reasonable.

In later years the followers of the movement placed increasing emphasis on the responsibility of Christians in the life of society and have given much attention to social problems. This social concern led to the foundation of the Christian Social Union in 1889 under Brooke Foss Westcott and Henry Scott Holland.

Bibliography

See R. W. Church, The Oxford Movement (1891; rev. ed. 1970, ed. by G. Best and J. Clive); E. R. Fairweather, The Oxford Movement (1964); M. R. O'Connell, The Oxford Conspirators (1969); R. Chapman, Faith and Revolt (1970).

References in periodicals archive ?
Tennyson notes, "The Tractarians were, of course, children of their time (Keble, for example, was born in the same year as Shelley), and it is not surprising to find in them many assumptions of the Romanticism that characterized the first quarter of the nineteenth century.
Feild's intentions for his colonial diocese were shaped by his Tractarian ideals, notably the Church's constitutional independence from government, economic self-sufficiency, commitment to a Gothic-style church architecture where the altar was front and centre, and, most importantly, the Tractarian conception of the Church of England's apostolic identity.
Brad Faught, The Oxford Movement: A Thematic History of the Tractarians and Their Times (University Park: Pennsylvania State Univ.
As Peter Nockles explains, the concept of reserve, formulated against the Evangelical emphasis on individualism, "became a distinctive element of the Tractarian spiritual ethos" by uniting Tractarians around a theological principle.
Because the book is a reassessment of the Oxford Movement rather than an introduction to it, Pereiro expects readers to be familiar not only with the major figures of Victorian religious culture but with the intricacies of the doctrinal issues facing the Tractarians.
Finally, the book has a chapter on how ethos, as a primary concept of Tractarianism, came to drive a wedge between the High Church and the Tractarians as the early church came to be paramount over the Reformation for the latter.
Tractarian novelists, beginning with William Gresley and Francis Paget and proceeding to the more talented Elizabeth Missing Sewell and Charlotte Mary Yonge, used fiction to advance the Catholic aims of the Oxford Movement.
It was only in 1833, however, that the controversial period of his life began with the initiation of the Oxford Tractarian Movement.
It was part of the growing interest in the poetry of religion that accompanied the Tractarian movement.
By approaching the tractarians in this way, Faught is able to give the broadest possible introduction to the movement in a notably short book.
The Oxford Movement A Thematic History of the Tractarians and Their Times by C.
All Saints is part of a tide running beneath the surface of mainline Episcopal-Anglican faith called Oxford Catholicism, a dissident current that emerged in the nineteenth century among Britain's Tractarians.