Trade Guilds

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Trade Guilds


(French, compagnonnages), associations of apprentices in France.

The trade guilds, most of which were secret, probably arose in the 12th and 13th centuries, when apprentices of a trade united to render mutual aid in journeying around France; they set up hostels, hospitals, and eating houses. From the early 16th century, when the guild structure was breaking down, the trade guilds were transformed into organizations to support the apprentices’ struggle against their master craftsmen. Striving to improve the working conditions of apprentices and raise salaries, they resorted to boycotts of the master craftsmen and to strikes. Under pressure from the guild master craftsmen, the government repeatedly issued bans on the guilds. They were also subjected to persecution from the church, which saw them as a possible center for the spread of heresies. However, the guilds continued to exist until the mid-19th century, gradually being replaced by trade unions.

Associations of apprentices similar to the French trade guilds also existed in other European countries.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in classic literature ?
[*] "Guilds or societies," "in arti o in tribu." "Arti" were craft or trade guilds, cf.
It was then that the playing came into the hands of the trade guilds.
You will also find out about the role of the Mayor and the Mayor's Bodyguard, who have been based at the site since 1602, and the ancient trade guilds and freemen of the city - who for centuries held political and economic power in the city and who continue to meet in the building's Guildhall.
He was union president for two terms at Bulletin Today (now Manila Bulletin) and pushed for the establishment of unions of journalists and trade guilds across the media industry.
At this time the large county towns which surrounded Birmingham like Worcester, Warwick, Stafford and Shrewsbury were closed cities - their trade guilds stopping newcomers making a living - and growth therefore discouraged.
Their trade guilds stopped newcomers making a living and growth was prevented and discouraged.
The place of books in women's lives as well as the well-developed associations between printers and the more elite London trade guilds (the Mercers and Drapers) are scrutinized in the latter sections.
The collection starts with a number of chapters devoted to Lorenzo's intellectual and personal upbringing, followed by an analysis of his political coming of age and public life, and his active interest in the arts, and also included are separate chapters on architecture, music, religious life, and the trade guilds. Of the first group, I have found particularly inspiring the pages dedicated to the women in Lorenzos life, and their influence in his political apprenticeship.
Hospital inmates were identified by their russet robes, ironically the same colour as the Trinitarian friars, on whose property elderly members of the excluded Trade Guilds were now residing.
And it was quite noteworthy that attending the Khartoum meeting were representatives of state establishments, public and private corporations and trade guilds. In other words, the participants were the very people who are directly concerned with the promotion of trade and investments.