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a training device for practicing job skills or for practicing and mastering the techniques used to operate a machine or mechanism. Trainers are widely used, for example, in the occupational instruction of workers in various trades, in the training of cosmonauts, and in the combat training of military personnel. There are simple basic job trainers, which make it possible to practice individual job skills and operations, and complex procedure trainers, on which a set of operations is practiced.
Ground-based and onboard trainers for cosmonauts are called flight simulators. For example, ground-based flight simulators may be used to practice the operations involved in docking spacecraft, and onboard flight simulators in the fuselage of an aircraft may be used to train cosmonauts to perform transfers from one spacecraft to another. Various ground-based flight simulators are used to practice the skills of controlling spacecraft during landings and of monitoring the operation of different onboard systems.
The trainer for a tank driver is a small pivoting platform on which the controls and instruments of a tank are mounted. This trainer is used to teach skills required in the performance of sequential procedures and in the coordination of actions involved in the manipulation of the tank or gun controls and to develop proper reactions to changes in tank movement. In more complex tank trainers the trainee develops operating skills while experiencing the sensation of tank movement along a course.
an airplane designed for the instruction and training of pilots. Trainers used for primary instruction have two seats, a low wing loading of 600 to 700 newtons per m2 (60 to 70 kg-force per m2), good stability, and a low landing speed (up to 100 km/ hr). Examples include the Iak-18U (USSR) and the Zlin Trener (Czechoslovakia). Airplanes designed for advanced training have better performance specifications; they include the piston-engine Iak-52 and Iak-30 (USSR) and the jet-engine T-37 (USA). Training on such airplanes enables student pilots to make the transition to civil and military airplanes already in service. Sports planes are often used as trainers in aviation clubs and flying schools.