Tranquilizers


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Wikipedia.

Tranquilizers

 

psychotropic drugs that have a calming effect. They reduce emotional tension, irritability, and anxiety, decrease the tonus of the skeletal musculature, influence a number of functions of the autonomic nervous system, and intensify the effect of some somnifacients.

In contrast to neuroleptics (major tranquilizers), tranquilizers do not cause retardation, excessive sleepiness, or neurological disturbances. Tranquilizers decrease the excitability of the limbic system, the thalamus, and the hypothalamus. Large doses suppress the activity of the reticular formation. The side effects of tranquilizers are insignificant, consisting mainly of muscular weakness. Tranquilizers do not have an antipsychotic effect, and are therefore used in psychiatry mainly to treat neuroses, psychopathies, and other borderline psychological states. They are also used to treat nervous diseases marked by increased muscle tonus, as well as some internal diseases.

Tranquilizers belong to various classes of chemical compounds. Most widely used are derivatives of benzodiazepine —chlordiazepoxide (Librium, Elenium), diazepam (Seduxen), oxazepam (Tazepam), and nitrazepam (Eunoctin, Radedorm). Derivatives of other chemical compounds used are meprobamate and trioxazine. The tendency toward excessive use of tranquilizers in many countries poses the problem of enacting measures to limit their use and to increase physicians’ control over their use. The enactment of such measures would serve to prevent widespread psychological dependence on tranquilizers.

REFERENCES

Psikhotropnye sredstva v meditsinskoi praktike. Edited by G. la. Avrutskii. Moscow, 1971.
Raiskii, V. A. Psikhofarmakologicheskie sredstva v meditsinskoi praktike. Moscow, 1972.
Aleksandrovskii, Iu. A. Klinicheskaia farmakologiia trankvilizatorov. Moscow, 1973.

G. IA. AVRUTSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
Pakistanis mostly use imported or multinational companies made tranquilizers while local made anti-stress drugs also being popular in the terrorism-hit country.
Mohammad Abdulrahman Al-Mishl, executive president of the SFDA, said in a press release following the launch of the electronic system in Riyadh that the system will estimate the volume of tranquilizers, which will be imported and given to the patient.
An accomplishment of the book is that it raises a number of important questions about tranquilizers in America, some of which Tone is unable to fully answer.
One interesting theme in the book describes the undercurrent of concern within scientific and popular circles about the potential for dependence and serious withdrawal effects from long-term use of tranquilizers.
Far from an irrational solution to contemporary problems, Miltown and the "me too" tranquilizers that followed it (based upon the same chemical formulation tweaked slightly to avoid patent infringements) could be a reasonable alternative: "the question in many Americans' minds in the 1950s may have been, Why not take a tranquilizer?
The difference between the percentage of sedative/barbiturate abusers and tranquilizer abusers is fewer than two percent.
Treatments that participants rated as least effective and most harmful given potential side effects were taking various types of antidepressants, antiseizure medications, and tranquilizers.
They also show trends in perceived risk, disapproval, and perceived availability of marijuana, inhalants, LSD, cocaine, crack cocaine, amphetamines, heroin, methamphetamine, tranquilizers, barbiturates, club drugs (ecstasy and rohypnol), alcohol, cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, and steroids.
A 37-year-old man arrested for allegedly stabbing eight children to death Friday at an elementary school in Ikeda, Osaka Prefecture, has changed his account and said he did not take tranquilizers before storming the school, investigative sources said Tuesday.
And, when the study ended, the participants showed no signs of dependency, unlike what often happens with prescription tranquilizers like Xanax.
The 74 "distressed" men had abused alcohol air either regularly used tranquilizers or consulted a psychiatrist.
It's not your budget that's as much in danger as your bones if you're using certain prescription tranquilizers.