Transaminase

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transaminase

[¦tranz′am·ə‚nās]
(biochemistry)
One of a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of the amino group of an amino acid to a keto acid to form another amino acid. Also known as aminotransferase.

Transaminase

 

(also aminotransferase and aminopherase), an enzyme of the transferase group that catalyzes the transfer of an amino group (—NH2) from an α-amino acid to an α-keto acid. Transaminases are found in most animal and plant tissues and play an important part in nitrogen metabolism. The role of transaminase in the transamination process was discovered by the Soviet biochemists A. E. Braunshtein and M. G. Kritsman in 1937. The coenzyme in transaminase reactions is pyridoxal phosphate, the aldehyde group of which serves as intermediate acceptor of the amino group. The resulting pyridoxamine phosphate transfers the amino group to the ketone group of the acid undergoing amination. The reaction is reversible.

A. A. BOLDYREV

References in periodicals archive ?
Rahul Nathwani, MD, and colleagues also reported on a series of 16 patients with choledocholithiasis and transaminase levels greater than 1,000.
Serum transaminase levels in boys with Duchenne and Bucker muscular dystrophy.
Enzyme assay kits for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PDH), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) kits were products of Randox Laboratories limited; United Kingdom, and were supplied by LIMED International Limited, Idumota Lagos State, Nigeria.
Elevations in transaminases are >1000sIU/dL, with ALT usually greater than AST.
In the following week, he developed a recurrent rise in his transaminases, leading to cessation of antimycobacterial therapy due to possible rifampin hepatotoxicity.
Table 1: Liver enzymes value before and after withdrawal of clonazepam-indicating acute liver injury Liver function test Day 1 (before) Day 2 (before) Day 1 (after) SGOT 40.3 59.7 32.8 SGPT 45.6 50.2 32.0 ALP 135.3 150.9 135.0 Bilirubin 1.10 0.13 0.4 Liver function test Day 2 (after) SGOT 31.0 SGPT 31.5 ALP 131.3 Bilirubin 0.2 SGOT: Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, SGPT: Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, ALP: Alkaline phosphatase
Fasting glucose, total cholesterol, and transaminases were tested yearly along with height, weight, and data on tobacco and alcohol use, family history, and any disease diagnoses.
Further laboratory evaluation showed a prothrombin time of 12.1 s, an INR of 1.1, a partial thromboplastin time of 28 s, aspartate transaminase (AST) of 174IU/L, alanine transaminase (ALT) of 193IU/L, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of 914 U/L, and an erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 14/h; urea (22 mg/dL), creatinine (0.3mg/dL), B12, and folic acid levels were normal.
There was no elevation on serum transaminases, the palmoplantar desquamation got progressively better, and she remained asymptomatic.
Another interesting complication of hypoxia in this case is the associated hypoxic hepatitis as evidenced by the marked rise in transaminases (SGOT: 3,093 units/L, SGPT: 1,573 units/L) and the fall in transaminases by 50% within 72 h.
The effect of statins on transaminases seems to be dependent on statin dose, and effects on other liver enzymes and bilirubin emerged with higher doses.
Several causes can lead to increased levels of the transaminases including infectious, metabolic, toxic, inflammatory, infiltrative, and traumatic causes.