Transcarpathian Region

Transcarpathian Region

(trănz'cärpā`thēən), Ukr. Zarkarpattya Oblast or Zakarpats'ka Oblast, Rus. Zakarpatskaya Oblast, administrative region (1989 pop. 1,252,000), 4,981 sq mi (12,901 sq km), SW Ukraine, on the southwestern slopes of the Carpathian Mts. Uzhhorod (the capital), Mukacheve, and Khust are the chief cities. The region is bordered by Romania to the south, Hungary to the southwest, Slovakia to the west, and Poland to the northwest. It is thickly forested and largely agricultural. The plain in the southwest, which is drained by the Tisza River and its tributaries, supports crops of wheat, corn, tobacco, sugar beets, and potatoes. There are vineyards, fruit orchards, and walnut groves in the foothills. The region's mineral resources include brown coal, rock salt, fire clays, marble, and limestone. Forests occupy nearly half the area of the oblast, and lumbering, along with the production of such items as wood chemicals, furniture, and cartons, is a leading industry. The majority of the population is Ukrainian, with Hungarian, Russian, Slovak, and Rusyn minorities.

Inhabited by Slavic tribes from the 8th cent., the region was part of Kievan RusKievan Rus
, medieval state of the Eastern Slavs. It was the earliest predecessor of modern Ukraine and Russia. Flourishing from the 10th to the 13th cent., it included nearly all of present-day Ukraine and Belarus and part of NW European Russia, extending as far N as Novgorod
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 in the 10th and 11th cent. but was conquered by the Magyars, who ruled it until 1918. It has been variously known as Ruthenia or the Carpathian Ukraine, or by its Czech name of Podkarpatská Rus [Subcarpathian Ruthenia] or its Ukrainian name of Zakarpatska Ukraina [Transcarpathian Ukraine]. Its inhabitants were historically called Ruthenians; many were Rusyns, closely related to Ukrainians but culturally differentiated (see RutheniaRuthenia
, Latinized form of the word Russia. The term was applied to Ukraine in the Middle Ages when the princes of Halych briefly assumed the title kings of Ruthenia.
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). Until the early 20th cent. the region was an area of severe economic underdevelopment. Hungarian absentee landlords owned virtually all the land, and the peasantry was mired in abysmal poverty.

After World War I the Khust Ukrainian congress voted for union with Ukraine, but after prospects for an independent Ukraine declined, the Central Ruthenian People's council called for the region's union with newly independent Czechoslovakia, which incorporated Transcarpathia in May, 1919. Although a guarantee of provincial autonomy embodied in the Treaty of St. Germain (Sept., 1919) did not materialize, the region began to undergo economic modernization. The peasants were freed from their servile status, but agrarian reform failed to break up all the large estates.

In the wake of the Munich Pact (1938), the reorganized state of Czecho-Slovakia was pressured by Germany to grant autonomy to Transcarpathia. After Czecho-Slovakia was dismembered in Mar., 1939, the region proclaimed its independence; but it was shortly occupied by and annexed to Hungary. Transcarpathia was taken over by Soviet troops and local guerrillas in 1944. In 1945, Czechoslovakia was persuaded to cede the area to the USSR. The region was formed in 1946 and has remained part of Ukraine since; under Soviet ruled Rusyns were forcibly regarded as Ukrainian and their identity suppressed.

References in periodicals archive ?
During the seven months of 2019, 572 units of land management and land valuation documentation were submitted to the General Directorate of the State Geocadastre in Transcarpathian region for conducting state examination of land management documentation.
At the Carpathian geodynamic test area of Carpathian Branch of Institute of Geophysics NASU covering the Transcarpathian region of Ukraine a network of 6 regime geophysical stations is in operation.
In the course of 1996, both the ERRC and the Uzhorod Roma organisation, the Romani Yag, lodged formal complaints with the general prosecutor of Ukraine as a result of systematised brutality by police in the Transcarpathian region of Ukraine.
During the first half of 2019 in the Transcarpathian region UAH 3.403 million of losses of agricultural and forestry production were accrued, in fact, to budgets of different levels, taking into account the debts for the previous years, UAH 2.739 million was received.
It was decided to create a working group under the Transcarpathian Regional State Administration, which will include representatives of the Main Directorate of the State Geocadastre in the Transcarpathian region, regional state administration, Uzhgorod city council and district state administration.
Since the beginning of 2019, the state cadastral registrars of the Transcarpathian region have processed 31,050 applications for the State Land Cadastre.
Tenders are invited for overhaul of the roof of the main directorate of the state treasury service of ukraine in the transcarpathian region (2, p.
Tenders are invited for current average repair of the motorway of general use of the local value of the value c 070217 under the drive to the village of begendetska pastil km 0 + 000 - 1 + 800 of the transcarpathian region - - repair of roads the current average repair of the public road network of the local value is c 070217 under the drive.
Tenders are invited for 2013 subcontracting works for the execution of works overhaul of the building of the barracks 57 of the military town No.13 on the street kurutzyk, 21 in the city of mukacheve of the transcarpathian region (works on the arrangement of water supply, Sewerage, Heating and ventilation ) (by cpv code for - capital
Tenders are invited for dstu b.D.1.1-1: 2013 subcontracting works related to the implementation of works overhaul of the building of the barracks # 57 of the military camp # 13 kurutsy street, # 21 in the city of mukachevo, transcarpathian region (internal finishing works) (by code cpv for - major repairs and restoration) without a name

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