transfer orbit


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transfer orbit

The trajectory followed by a spacecraft moving from one orbit to another, usually to the orbit of another body, such as another planet. The trajectory is generally part of an elongated ellipse – a transfer ellipse – that intersects the new orbit. The spacecraft would have to maneuver into an orbit around the planet by firing its rocket motors.

The transfer orbit requiring the minimum expenditure of energy is an ellipse that just touches the original (circular) orbit and the new coplanar orbit. This is called a Hohmann transfer, after the German engineer Walter Hohmann, who described it in 1925. Enough velocity is put in at the perigee (or equivalent point) of the Hohmann transfer for the craft to reach the new orbit at apogee; at apogee an additional velocity input injects the craft into the desired orbit. Although requiring the lowest possible energy, Hohmann transfers between planets involve a long flight time. The flight time can be much reduced by using a somewhat greater velocity at perigee than that needed for a Hohmann transfer. See also gravity assist.

transfer orbit

[′tranz·fər ‚ȯr·bət]
(aerospace engineering)
In interplanetary travel, an elliptical trajectory tangent to the orbits of both the departure planet and the target planet. Also known as transfer ellipse.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Braxton OAS provides flight dynamics and mission planning capabilities to support multiple satellite bus manoeuvres from parking and transfer orbits to final geosynchronous orbit and station keeping operations.
Since the 1980s, however, most launch vehicles have been optimized to send payloads to a "geostationary transfer orbit," with a low perigee and an apogee near 22,240 miles (35,800 km), to serve the communications-satellite industry.
The Falcon 9 second stage delivered JCSAT-14 to a Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit pic.
M2 EQUITYBITES-February 1, 2016-EUTELSAT 9B Satellite launches into geosynchronous transfer orbit
This step is considered as a unique success in mastering the complex technology involved, which is also seen as helpful in using the space technology for strategic ends since ISRO successfully placed the satellites in the intended geosynchronous transfer orbit.
After a nine-hour, 12-minute mission, the Breeze M upper stage of the Proton rocket successfully released the ASTRA 2G satellite into geostationary transfer orbit.
The Falcon 9 rocketwill carry AsiaSat 8 to a highly elliptical geosynchronous transfer orbit.
A satellite, weighing more than 6900 kg, is planned to be launched into geostationary transfer orbit on an ILS Proton Breeze M in the late 2015 or early 2016 timeframe from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan.
GSAT-10 will be sent into a Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) by Ariane-5 VA-209 launch vehicle at 02:48 hrs IST on Saturday, 2012, from French Guiana.
The PSLV will launch IRNSS-1H, the eighth satellite of the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) into a Sub-Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (Sub-GTO).
The two satellites were precisely placed in a transfer orbit, from which they reach their geostationary orbit using their on-board propulsion systems.