Transferase

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transferase

[′tranz·fə‚rās]
(biochemistry)
Any of various enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a chemical group from one molecule to another.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Transferase

 

any of a class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a chemical group from one compound (the donor) to another (the acceptor). Transferases are common in plant and animal tissues, as well as in microorganisms. They play a leading role in intermediary metabolism, participating in the transformations of carbohydrates, amino acids, nucleic acids, lipids, and other biologically important compounds.

The transferase class includes more than 450 enzymes, divided by the chemical nature of the group being transferred into subclasses. Examples include the subclasses that catalyze the transfer of single-carbon groups (methyltransferases), glycosyl groups (glycosyltransferases), nitrogen-bearing groups (aminotransferases, or transaminases), and phosphate groups (phosphotransferases). The transferases of the various subclasses have different coenzymes.

The mechanism of the catalytic action of the transferases studied to date includes the formation of an intermediate made up of the enzyme and group being transferred. For example, in the transfer of the acetyl radical (CH3CO—), an acetylated enzyme is formed in the first stage of the reaction, followed by the transfer of the radical to the acceptor and the liberation of the enzyme. The names of transferases are formed according to the sequence dononacceptor-transferred group-transferase. For example, the enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphate group from adenosinetriphosphate (ATP) to creatine is called ATP:creatine-phosphotransferase. Several transferases have been obtained in crystalline form.

REFERENCES

Nomenklatura fermentov. Moscow, 1966. (Translated from English.)
Kretovich, V. L. Vvedenie v enzimologiiu, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1974.

V. V. ZUEVSKII

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Molecular cloning of a human genomic region containing the H blood group alpha (1, 2) fucosyl transferase gene and two H locus related DNA restriction fragments.
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Glutathione transferase isozymes of diamondback moth larvae and their role in the degradation of some organophosphorus insecticides.
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Hence, the present work is carried out to determine the effect of fluoride intoxication on amino transferase enzyme activity in fresh water cat fish, Clarias batrachus.
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