a Russian word with the following meanings:
(1) In radio broadcasting and television, transliatsiia is used in the senses of both remote pickup and relaying. Remote pickup is the transmission of programs originating outside a studio, that is, transmission directly from the sites of events, for example, from theaters, concert halls, or stadiums. Relaying is the feeding to local broadcasts of programs transmitted from other cities over intercity communication lines.
In remote pickup in radio broadcasting, sound vibrations are converted into electric signals by means of microphones, which are placed in the most suitable locations—depending on the subject of the transmission—for example, on a stage, in an auditorium, or near an orchestra. The initial processing of signals from various sources (which includes signal amplification, correction, level control, and mixing) and the putting together of a broadcast (for example, the inclusion of narration or commentary) are carried out in a special facility, which is called a transmission center and is equipped with various amplifying, sound-recording, measuring, switching, and other devices. Sites from which remote pickup is usually carried out (examples in Moscow include the Kremlin Palace of Congresses, the Bolshoi Theater, the Large Hall of the Conservatory, and the Lenin Central Stadium) contain permanent transmission centers. Some sites have semipermanent transmission centers, which are facilities where the cable line connections required for remote pickup are located. At other sites mobile transmission centers housed in special vehicles are used. In the USSR a broadcast that is completely put together in a transmission center is carried over wire lines or radio links to a radio and recording studio or an intercity network or is tape-recorded at the center for delayed broadcast from the studio.
Transmissions received over intercity lines from another city may be either relayed in full by local radio stations or included in local programs at a scheduled time. Selected radio reception centers are also used to receive transmissions from other cities.
Remote pickup in television is usually carried out by mobile television units with the use of semipermanent transmission centers. As in radio remote pickup, permanent television transmission centers are built at certain sites.
(2) In telecommunication, transliatsiia is used in the sense of relaying. In the transmission of electric signals from source to receiver over wires or by radio waves, the term “relaying” is applied to the reception and subsequent transmission of the signals at one repeater station or at several stations in succession. Relaying generally entails the amplification of weak signals and, if necessary, the correction of distortion. The use of relaying makes it possible to reduce or remove limitations on the distance of communication, which are determined by the characteristics of radio-wave propagation and by signal attenuation during transmission over communication lines. Relaying is used primarily in long-distance communications, including satellite communications, that is, space communications between two or more ground stations and between ground stations and spacecraft. Examples of relaying equipment include intermediate amplifiers (which are connected to wire lines at equally spaced intervals along the entire link), active repeaters, and passive repeaters.
(3) The term transliatsiia is applied to a repeater, that is, an intermediate device incorporated into an electric-signal transmission link to increase the distance of communication. An example is a regenerative repeater in telegraphy.
(4) Transliatsiia is also an obsolete term for wire broadcasting.
REFERENCESIziumov, N. M. Radioreleinaia sviaz’, 2nd ed. Moscow-Leningrad, 1962.
Dolukhanov, M. P. Rasprostranenie radiovoln, 4th ed. Moscow, 1972.
Varbanskii, A. M. Televidente. Moscow, 1973.
Efimov, A. P. Radioveshchanie. Moscow, 1975.
M. M. SHNOL’