Transpeptidation


Also found in: Medical.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Transpeptidation

 

the transfer of an amino acid residue or peptide residue from one compound, usually a peptide, to another in living cells. The reaction, which may be catalyzed by such proteolytic enzymes as trypsin and chymotrypsin, proceeds without substantial changes in free energy, and the total number of peptide bonds (—CO—NH—) in the system remains unchanged. Transpeptidation is used by the cell in the biosynthesis of proteins.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Different polysaccharide strands are cross-linked by a transpeptidation reaction involving the pentaglycine bridges.
Van Den Eynde, "Splicing of distant peptide fragments occurs in the proteasome by transpeptidation and produces the spliced antigenic peptide derived from fibroblast growth factor-5," Journal of Immunology, vol.
They catalyse the exogenous removal of the terminal [gamma]-glutamyl moiety from amides or peptides and its subsequent transfer to water (hydrolysis) or an acceptor amine (transpeptidation) or a second substrate molecule (autotransfer).
[beta]-lactiun antibiotics such as methicillin bind to proteins responsible for bacterial cell wall synthesis by a mechanism known as transpeptidation (peptidase enzymes also known as penicillin binding proteins, PBP); thus, if PBP is altered, the [beta]-lactam antibiotic cannot inhibit cell wall formation and the strain is rendered resistant.
PBPs catalyze the final step of polymerization (transglycosylation) and cross-linking by transpeptidation of peptidoglycan.
While in the presence of B-lactam antibiotics, normal PBPs are blocked, PBP2a precedes the transpeptidation reactions, thereby results in normal cell wall synthesis (8), (10).
This pentapeptide, when incorporated into the nascent peptidoglycan (transglycosylation), permits the formation of cross-bridges (transpeptidation) and contributes to the strength of the peptidoglycan layer (43).