Trabzon

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Trabzon

Trabzon (träbˌzōnˈ) or Trebizond (trĕbˈĭzŏndˌ), city (1990 pop. 144,805), capital of Trabzon prov., NE Turkey, a port on the Black Sea. A commercial and transportation center with renovated port facilities, it exports food products and tobacco. Iron, lead, and copper are found nearby. Known in ancient times as Trapezus, the city was founded in the 8th cent. B.C. by Greek colonists from Sinop. It grew in importance after its conquest (1st cent. B.C.) by Mithradates VI and after its incorporation (1st cent. A.D.) into the Roman Empire. Although it suffered from invasions by barbarians after the 3d cent., it again became a prosperous port under the Byzantine Empire. It reached its greatest splendor after the establishment (1204) by the Comnenus dynasty of the empire of Trebizond, which endured until 1461, when it was annexed by the Ottoman Empire. Under the rule of Alexius III (1349–90) the city was one of the world's leading trade centers and was renowned for its great wealth and artistic accomplishment. Under the Ottomans it became the starting point of caravans to Persia. Trabzon was included (1920) in the short-lived independent state of Armenia. The city's large Greek population was deported in 1922–23. Trabzon has many historic monuments. The best preserved is the 13th-century Church of Aya Sophia (now a museum), an excellent example of Byzantine architecture. The city is the site of Black Sea Technical Univ.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Trabzon

 

(or Trebizond), a city in northeastern Turkey. Capital of Trabzon Vilayet. Population, 97,200 (1975).

Trabzon is a port on the Black Sea, through which hazelnuts, tobacco, wool, and construction lumber are exported. It is the point of origin of a highway to Iran that passes through Erzurum. The city has an airport. Industry includes food processing, the production of cement, shipbuilding, and fishing. There is also a university.

Trabzon was founded by Greeks from Sinope in about the mid-seventh century B.C. (or c. mid-eighth century B.C.). It was an important port and trade center in the ancient world. In the second century B.C., it became part of Pontus, and in 63 B.C., part of the Roman province of Bithynia and Pontus. From the fifth to early 13th centuries A.D., it was part of the Byzantine Empire, and from 1204 to 1461 it was the capital of the Empire of Trebizond. In 1461 it was conquered by the Ottoman Turks and became part of the Ottoman Empire.

Trabzon is divided into the Upper City, which is surrounded by bastions, and the Lower City, which extends from the bastions to the harbor. The Upper City contains a walled citadel dating from the Empire of Trebizond, with ruins of the imperial palace (13th-14th centuries), the Panagia Chrysocephalus (tenth century, rebuilt in the 13th century; since 1461, the Orta Hisar Mosque), and Hagia Sophia (built after 1204; rebuilt from 1248 to 1263), which contains remnants of sculpture and frescoes. The Lower City contains the Church of St. Anne (early eighth century; rebuilt in 884–885; since the 15th century, the Kücük Aivazil Mosque) and the Church of St. Eugenius (13th century; since the 15th century, the Yeni Cuma Mosque).

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Trabzon

, Trebizond
a port in NE Turkey, on the Black Sea: founded as a Greek colony in the 8th century bc at the terminus of an important trade route from central Europe to Asia. Pop.: 246 000 (2005 est.)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Polemo II's alleged inability to control Euxine piracy, especially after Corbulo had turned Trapezus into an important supply base for Roman forces on the upper Euphrates, can be safely dismissed as a motive for the annexation of Pontus.
(84) Opening a supply line from Trapezus, through the Pontic Alps into Armenia Minor became one of his first priorities.
(91) Even in the late 2nd and early 3rd centuries, when vexillations of XV Apollinaris or XII Fulminata manned (never simultaneously) Trapezus, a vexillation of XV Apollinaris garrisoned Pityus, another legionary vexillatio of unknown origin was (at least during Hadrian's reign) at Phasis, and auxilia unit(s) inhabited Apsarus, Roman forces in the eastern Euxine probably never numbered 3000.
Corbulo had established the significance of Trapezus perhaps as early as 55 and Polemo II had based his fleet there.
Trapezus, however, the classis Ponticas initial base, was hardly ideal, offering an anchorage but not a real harbor, until Hadrian had one built in the 120s.
Trapezus not only connected the Cappadocian army on the upper Euphrates with the Euxine but also served the various garrisons on the Colchian coast.
A classis Pontica, based at Trapezus and operating from Amasus in the west to Dioscurias or Pityus in the northeast would essentially be a classis Cappadocica, a typical provincial fleet, the naval extension of an imperial provincial governor's military command.
Graf 1994 on the Nabataean army), no trace of Polemo II's army survives after a cohort at Trapezus was mangled during Anicetus' revolt in 69.
Starr (1993:126) erroneously thinks Trapezus was Polemo's capital.
Sarnowski (2006b:89) thinks V Macedonica came by sea to Trapezus. If XV Apollinaris from Pannonia used the faster maritime route (a lesson from the V Macedonica's experience?) the next year, it would firmly eliminate Heil's argument (1997:119-20) for re-dating Corbulo's 63 campaign to 64, based on the estimated time required for a march from Carnuntum to the Euphrates.
3.1); thus, excluding Trapezus, far less than 2000 men are attested at the time of Arrian's governorship (c.
Starr believes (1993:128) that Trapezus' significance declined with the improved road network in Anatolia.