the appearance of the crush syndrome, which results from extensive and sustained (four to eight hours or more) crushing of the soft tissues of the extremities. Traumatic toxicosis is observed in war casualties and earthquake and mine disaster victims. After being rescued, the victim may develop shock. Symptoms include massive edema and loss of sensation in and mobility of the injured extremities. Within three to four days, acute renal insufficiency develops owing to the entry of the toxic products of tissue breakdown into the bloodstream. Treatment consists of antishock measures, immobilization of the injured limbs by means of splints, and if necessary, the use of an artificial kidney apparatus.