in the cultivation of ornamental and fruit trees, the transplantation of grown trees from one place to another for the purpose of creating orchards, parks, and squares within a short period of time. Trees may be transplanted in early spring or late fall (sometimes in winter) at temperatures no lower than — 5°C. They are transplanted either with or without a root ball if the trees are four or five years old. The root ball should be 1.25 m in diameter for trees seven to ten years old and 1.5 m in diameter for trees ten to 15 years old. It is not advisable to transplant trees older than 15 years. The root ball should be no less than 60–80 cm high, so that the main part of the horizontal roots is preserved. For trees being moved long distances and for trees being moved from light soils, the root ball is encased in planks.
At the transplantation site, pits are dug that are 50–60 cm wider than the tree’s root ball. The tree is placed in the hole, which is then filled with fertile, moist soil. The tree is guyed with wires, and the bole is covered with moss or burlap, which is kept moist in the summer. Sometimes, transplanted trees are pruned. In the summer, regular care is provided: soil loosening, mulching, watering, and maintaining pest and disease control. In the fall, the circles of earth around the trunk are loosened and mulched with peat or manure. For the winter the boles and branches of the main limbs are wrapped in spruce branches, cane, or other materials. Berry shrubs are transplanted in the fall, because vegetative growth begins very early in the spring.
E. V. KOLESNIKOV