tribune

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tribune,

in ancient Rome, one of various officers. The history of the office of tribune is closely associated with the struggle of the plebsplebs
or plebeians
[Lat. plebs=people], general body of Roman citizens, as distinct from the patrician class. They lacked, at first, most of the patrician rights, but with the establishment of the tribune of the people in the 5th cent. B.C.
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 against the patricianpatrician
, member of the privileged class of ancient Rome. Two distinct classes appear to have come into being at the beginning of the republic. Only the patricians held public office, whether civil or religious. From the 4th cent. B.C.
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 class to achieve a more equitable position in the state. From c.508 B.C. the military tribunes (tribuni militum) were the senior officers of the legions, elected by the people and with the rank of magistrate; a plebeian could hold the position. The office of military tribune with the power of consul (tribuni militum consulari potestate) was established in 444 B.C. The office meant that certain of the military tribunes were invested with the political power of the consul. Although military tribunes were abolished (367 B.C.), the office of tribune of the plebs (tribuni plebis) designed to protect plebeian rights, especially against abuse by magistrates, had been formed (493 B.C.). The original number of such tribunes is uncertain, but by 449 B.C. there were 10. These tribunes were plebeians elected by an assembly of plebs. The power of the tribune derived from two basic prerogatives, the right of the tribune to inflict punishment upon a magistrate who disregarded either his injunction or the inviolability (sacrosanctitas) of the tribune's person. Gradually the tribune gained the intercessio or the right to veto a decision of a magistrate—which in effect was a veto over any official act of administration—and the right to prosecute corrupt magistrates before a public body. He further acquired (3d cent. B.C.) the power to attend and convene the senate and to lay before it matters for consideration. As the plebeians came to occupy more and more public offices, the tribune became less the champion of a class and more the representative of the individual over the state. With the reforms of the GracchiGracchi
, two Roman statesmen and social reformers, sons of the consul Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus and of Cornelia. The brothers were brought up with great care by their mother. Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus, d.133 B.C., the elder of the Gracchi, fought at Carthage (146 B.
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 in the late 2d cent. B.C., the office of tribune acquired wider significance, but later SullaSulla, Lucius Cornelius
, 138 B.C.–78 B.C., Roman general. At the height of his career he assumed the name Felix. He served under Marius in Africa and became consul in 88 B.C., when Mithradates VI of Pontus was overrunning Roman territory in the east.
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, combating these reforms, tried to remove the tribuneship as a factor in Roman government. Pompey restored the tribunes to their old power. Under the empire the tribuneship was held by the emperors. This gave to the emperors few powers that they did not otherwise possess, but the tradition of the office as a defender of popular rights and its inviolability was useful to them.

tribune

1. A slightly elevated platform or dais for a speaker.
2. The apse of a church.

tribune

1
1. in ancient Rome
a. an officer elected by the plebs to protect their interests. Originally there were two of these officers but finally there were ten
b. a senior military officer
2. a person or institution that upholds public rights; champion

tribune

2
1. 
a. the apse of a Christian basilica that contains the bishop's throne
b. the throne itself
2. a gallery or raised area in a church
References in periodicals archive ?
Habian convertido el proceso en una mierda y ahora quieren aromatizarlo", les reprocho en tribuna la senadora Layda Sansores, quien ventilo que "el PRI quedo ardido porque el PAN les salio mas priista que ellos y se quedo con las mejores canicas" del TEPJF.
Tribuna Sindical, Santiago, 18 quincena de septiembre de 1952, Santiago, Ano III, n8 36, pp.
No es casual que las primeras palabras que oimos en La Tribuna sean las de la protagonista, Amparo, para decir "Tengo hambre" (106).
Si ni siquiera consta en la descripcion del edificio, menos podrian pedirse explicaciones acerca de si se trata de una tribuna senorial o de un balcon de enfermos, como en la Peregrina de Sahagun o en la iglesia carmelitana de Alba de Tormes (14).
These facets of characterization are saved for La tribuna, where they complement the animalization and sobriquets of the other factory workers.
The Tribuna established in 2005 by the Barcelona-based Casa Asia and the Spanish Ministry for Foreign Affairs and Cooperation and the Philippines' Fundacion Santiago provides a regular venue for dialogue among business, academic, civil society and government representatives from both countries in order to strengthen bilateral ties.
Se realizaron registros de vibracion forzada sobre la tribuna empleando un actuador electrodinamico serie APS Dynamics de ELECTRO-SEIS Modelo 113, el cual genera rangos de fuerza de 20 a 40 libras y rangos de frecuencia de 0 a 200 Hz, ver Figura 5.
Por su parte, Tribuna Vasca lo hizo tambien diariamente pero desde el 9 de mayo, por lo cual totaliza 38 ejemplares.
Sin embargo, un silbido de alguien en la tribuna me saco de la rabieta.
Bolivian President Evo Morales has taken offense at the assumption that Zelaya is a criminal but has not addressed the less-than-convincing nature of the amnesty clause; Micheletti's level of conviction in the San JosE[umlaut] Accord is meanwhile outlined in a column entitled "Desde Estados Unidos" by Jacobo Goldstein, which appears on page 77 of yesterday's La Tribuna and, contrary to the implications of the title, does not address the origins of the Honduran coup.
The editor-in-chief of the Tribuna newspaper, Yrysbek Omurzakov, was beaten up by unidentified individuals on Wednesday night in Bishkek.
Floriano Abrahamowicz said in an= =20 interview Thursday with Italy's Tribuna di Treviso newspaper.

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