Trichogramma


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Trichogramma

 

a genus of ichneumon flies of the order Hy-menoptera that parasitize insect eggs. The flies are small, measuring 0.3–0.6 mm, and range in color from pale yellow to brownish black. They parasitize 215 species from six orders, mainly moths and hymenoptera. The female lays 25–150 eggs (usually 40–60), depositing between one and 40 in each egg of the host, depending on the size of the host’s egg. Under favorable conditions, development lasts approximately two weeks.

In the USSR, T. evanescens is the most important species, as it parasitizes more than 100 species of moths, including the grain moth Nemapogon granellus, Barathra brassicae, Argotis segetum, the corn borer (Pyrausta nubilalis), and the codling moth (Laspeyresia pomonella). The insect sometimes destroys 90–100 percent of the eggs of destructive species. T. pallida is a parasite of the codling moth and some leaf roller moths, and T. pini feeds on eggs of the pine moth.

The most important species in the USA is T. minutum, which is used to control the codling moth, Grapholitha molesta, the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis), and Chilo simplex.

Insects of the genus Trichogramma have long been used to control crop pests because they are easy to raise in a laboratory and are polyphagous. However, despite a number of successful instances when the insects were employed, lasting positive results have not yet been achieved.

REFERENCES

Biologicheskaia bor’ba s vrednymi nasekomymi i sorniakami. Moscow, 1968. (Translated from English.)
Khimicheskaia i biologicheskaia zashchita rastenii. Moscow, 1971.

G. M. DLUSSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitism of Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) eggs under different temperatures.
According to Harris, Ciba believes that Trichogramma is a technology with a long-term future and proposes to sell the pilot facility as an ongoing business unit, prior to the end of April of this year.
Parasitismo e superparasitismo de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) em ovos de Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).
Some of the thousands of different species of these wasps, one to two millimeters in length, found around orchards include: Braconid wasps (family Braconidae); Ichneumonid wasps (family Ichneumonidae); Chalcidoid wasps (family Chalcidoidea); Chalcid wasps (family Chalcididae); Eulophid wasps (family Eulophidae); Trichogramma wasps (family Trichogrammatidae); Mymarid wasps (family Mymaridae).
He and Knight are also testing the effectiveness of mass-releasing the egg parasitoid Trichogramma platneri, in conjunction with pheromone.
Other parasitic wasps include Aphytis melinus, which attacks red scale; Metaphycus helvolus, which attacks black scale; and several species of Trichogramma which parasitize the eggs of pest worms such as corn earworms and cabbage worms.
In comparison with the effect of a constant temperature on the development of insects, the effects of fluctuating temperatures have been found to accelerate the development of many species (Beck 1983; Ratte 1985), to decelerate the development of a few other species (Messenger 1969; Hagstrum & Leach 1973), or to have no differential effect as in the case of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) (Butler & Lopez 1980).
Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) e seu efeito sobre o parasitoide de ovos Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).
For example, Trichogramma, a wasp parasite of caterpillar pest eggs, is frequently mass-reared and released in China and former Soviet republics.
Trichogramma pretiosum had a broader distribution than the aphelinid wasp, which was collected only in Tucuman (northwestern Argentina).
And inside each moth egg is a surprise for European corn borers in Iowa: an egg of the parasitic wasp Trichogramma maidis.