Trichogramma

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Trichogramma

 

a genus of ichneumon flies of the order Hy-menoptera that parasitize insect eggs. The flies are small, measuring 0.3–0.6 mm, and range in color from pale yellow to brownish black. They parasitize 215 species from six orders, mainly moths and hymenoptera. The female lays 25–150 eggs (usually 40–60), depositing between one and 40 in each egg of the host, depending on the size of the host’s egg. Under favorable conditions, development lasts approximately two weeks.

In the USSR, T. evanescens is the most important species, as it parasitizes more than 100 species of moths, including the grain moth Nemapogon granellus, Barathra brassicae, Argotis segetum, the corn borer (Pyrausta nubilalis), and the codling moth (Laspeyresia pomonella). The insect sometimes destroys 90–100 percent of the eggs of destructive species. T. pallida is a parasite of the codling moth and some leaf roller moths, and T. pini feeds on eggs of the pine moth.

The most important species in the USA is T. minutum, which is used to control the codling moth, Grapholitha molesta, the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis), and Chilo simplex.

Insects of the genus Trichogramma have long been used to control crop pests because they are easy to raise in a laboratory and are polyphagous. However, despite a number of successful instances when the insects were employed, lasting positive results have not yet been achieved.

REFERENCES

Biologicheskaia bor’ba s vrednymi nasekomymi i sorniakami. Moscow, 1968. (Translated from English.)
Khimicheskaia i biologicheskaia zashchita rastenii. Moscow, 1971.

G. M. DLUSSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
COUNTRYSIDE: I read your recommendation to grow plants to attract trichogramma wasps, including tansy.
Trichogramma wasps are particularly efficient against lepidopteran pests that lay their eggs in clusters such as the European pine shoot borer (Rhyacionia buoliana Denis & Schiffermuller: Tortricidae), and the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hiibner: Pyralidae) (Dahlsten & Mills 1999; Kogan et al.
Trichogramma wasps require a source of carbohydrate to maintain basic physiological activities (Romeis et al.
Scientists from the USA's Agricultural Research Service (ARS), found that using the harmless and virtually invisible Trichogramma wasps in conjunction with the also tiny Habrobracon wasp, can prevent foods such as grains, cereals and petfoods from being infested by the moths.
To control aphids, mites, thrips, and whiteflies, she released green lacewing eggs and trichogramma wasps (1,000 of each every other week for six weeks).
Each year, more than a million billion parasitic Trichogramma wasps are reared and released by farmers in the Soviet Union, China, the United States and Canada.
Countryside: Please be advised that trichogramma wasps are a very good control for army worms as it took just two seasons to eradicate the worms from an entire orchard and farm and into surrounding areas as well (November/December issue, "The Great Army Worm War").
The inundative releases of Trichogramma wasps could be integrated in the current pest management system based on SIT applications during the 3 flight periods by building Trichogramma populations.
Trichogramma wasps have been used outdoors for decades to control insects plaguing cotton and other crops.
Some of the thousands of different species of these wasps, one to two millimeters in length, found around orchards include: Braconid wasps (family Braconidae); Ichneumonid wasps (family Ichneumonidae); Chalcidoid wasps (family Chalcidoidea); Chalcid wasps (family Chalcididae); Eulophid wasps (family Eulophidae); Trichogramma wasps (family Trichogrammatidae); Mymarid wasps (family Mymaridae).
Natural interspecific and intraspecific horizontal transfer of parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia in Trichogramma wasps.