Trichogramma

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Trichogramma

 

a genus of ichneumon flies of the order Hy-menoptera that parasitize insect eggs. The flies are small, measuring 0.3–0.6 mm, and range in color from pale yellow to brownish black. They parasitize 215 species from six orders, mainly moths and hymenoptera. The female lays 25–150 eggs (usually 40–60), depositing between one and 40 in each egg of the host, depending on the size of the host’s egg. Under favorable conditions, development lasts approximately two weeks.

In the USSR, T. evanescens is the most important species, as it parasitizes more than 100 species of moths, including the grain moth Nemapogon granellus, Barathra brassicae, Argotis segetum, the corn borer (Pyrausta nubilalis), and the codling moth (Laspeyresia pomonella). The insect sometimes destroys 90–100 percent of the eggs of destructive species. T. pallida is a parasite of the codling moth and some leaf roller moths, and T. pini feeds on eggs of the pine moth.

The most important species in the USA is T. minutum, which is used to control the codling moth, Grapholitha molesta, the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis), and Chilo simplex.

Insects of the genus Trichogramma have long been used to control crop pests because they are easy to raise in a laboratory and are polyphagous. However, despite a number of successful instances when the insects were employed, lasting positive results have not yet been achieved.

REFERENCES

Biologicheskaia bor’ba s vrednymi nasekomymi i sorniakami. Moscow, 1968. (Translated from English.)
Khimicheskaia i biologicheskaia zashchita rastenii. Moscow, 1971.

G. M. DLUSSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
Trichogramma wasp. These gnat-sized wasps lay their eggs inside the eggs of other insects, where the young trichogramma then develop as internal parasites, breaking the host's life cycle.
A Trichogramma wasp belongs to the family Trichogrammatidae of order Hymenoptera; these are tiny (0.5 mm long) parasitoids that attack the eggs of over 200 species, mostly Lepidopterans (Farmanullah et al., 2011).
Taiwan's fall armyworm (FAW) emergency response center said on Monday (July 15) that tiny Trichogramma wasps have proven effective in suppressing the growth of fall armyworms.
The centers raise 9 million Trichogramma wasps yearly to combat insect pests in rice, corn, sugar cane, vegetables and pasture lands.
In Brazil, Trichogramma wasps are used as part of the country's overall pest control strategy.
Plant species sampled for assessment of parasitism by Trichogramma wasps in eggs of pest lepidopterans in the semiarid region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, during Dec 2007 to Oct 2008.
Cytogenetics of microb-associated parthenogenesis and its consequence for gene flow in Trichogramma wasps. Heredity.
(2007) reported no adverse impact of transgenic Bt maize on the population of ladybird beetles and Trichogramma wasps. Wu and Guo (2005) found higher population of parasitoids (Trichogrammatids, Microplitis and Campoletis) in non-Bt as compared to transgenic Bt cotton.
COUNTRYSIDE: I read your recommendation to grow plants to attract trichogramma wasps, including tansy.
Scientists from the USA's Agricultural Research Service (ARS), found that using the harmless and virtually invisible Trichogramma wasps in conjunction with the also tiny Habrobracon wasp, can prevent foods such as grains, cereals and petfoods from being infested by the moths.