To phylogenetically place each transcript within known opsin evolutionary diversity, the resulting alignment of 565 in-group opsin amino acid sequences, 12 out-group sequences from Trichoplax adhaerens
Schultze, 1883 and closely related nonopsin G protein-coupled receptors (e.g., mouse melatonin receptor and human thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor) were used to estimate phylogenetic relationships and node confidence as bootstrap values using RAxML (Stamatakis 2006, 2014; Stamatakis et al.
The genes encoded for acidic proteolytic cocktail had been characterized and are present in the ancient arthropod lineages, Trichoplax adhaerens
(Fuzita et al.
We performed a "reverse" BLAST search for two proteins, searching the mouse and Drosophila proteomes for proteins similar to the Trichoplax adhaerens
(Placozoa) exclusive proteins XP_002107637.1 and XTh002111687.1.
Professor Chris Schofield and his team found that humans share a method of sensing oxygen with the world's simplest known living animal - Trichoplax adhaerens
- a discovery, which throws light on how humans sense oxygen and how oxygen levels drove the very earliest stages of animal evolution.
In selecting the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens
for sequencing, the NHGRI panel noted that placozoans are simple in yet another way.
Clade I contains HeCAl, HeCA12, and CAs from 3 non-annelidan species, Lottia gigantea, Acropora millepora, and Branchiostoma floridae; Clade II contains HeCA12 and CAs from 2 other annelid species, Riftia pachyptila and Capitella teleta; Clade III contains HeCA7 and CAs from 2 other species, Lottia gigantea and Capitella teleta; and Clade IV contains HeCA9 and CAs from 3 non-annelidan species, Trichoplax adhaerens
, Acropora millepora, and Branchiostoma floridae.
is the sole named member of Placozoa, an ancient metazoan phylum.
My favorite animals, Trichoplax adhaerens
. BioEssays 27: 1294-1302.
Adults of the smallest free-living, nonparasitic multicellular animals such as rotifers and nematodes have a minimum of several hundred cells (1), and even the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens
, with the simplest body organization of all free-living, nonparasitic eumetazoans, is composed of more than 300 cells (1), (3).
The recent sequencing of the genomes of the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis (King et al., 2008), the sponge Amphimedon queenslandica, the cnidarians Nematostella vectensis (Putnam et al., 2007) and Hydra magnipapillata, and the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens
is allowing us to decipher the genomic events underpinning the transition to metazoan multicellularity.
Since its discovery, Trichoplax adhaerens
has been classified as the sole species within the phylum Placozoa (Grell, 1971a), purported to reproduce sexually (Grell, 1971b, 1972), and discovered across the world.